Petrochemicals, also called petroleum distillates, are chemical products derived from petroleum. Petrochemicals are used to produce industrial chemicals, plastics products, synthetic rubber, dyes, synthetic detergents, polyurethanes, synthetic fibers, ammonia, and methanol. Chemical handling and emissions abatement are critical processes with stringent environmental standards.
Coke Wastewater Treatment: Heating coal over 1100 Co in the absence of oxygen produces metallurgical coke. This process provides both heat and carbon (coke) required for iron production. During this process the volatile materials contained in the coal are driven off, leaving coke as the product. Gas produced by coking is withdrawn by means of blowers to recover energy-rich byproducts, including methane. Ammonia stills are the principal means of recovery. Recycled scrubber water is used as a coolant. Scrubber...
Nitrogen oxide (NOx) is one of the main sources of air pollution, not only it has significant influence on global warming, but also involved in the destruction of the ozone layer. Technical measures to control NOx emissions can be divided into two categories: one is so-called source control, the characteristic is by a variety of technical means, to control NOx generation in the process of combustion reaction (i.e., low NOx combustion technology). Another kind is the so-called tail control, the characteristic is...
Air Stripping is the transferring of volatile components of a liquid into an air stream. This process is used for the purification of groundwater and wastewater containing volatile compounds. Air Strippers are usually packed towers operated with a countercurrent flow of water and air. The design for Air Strippers involves a packed tower which includes plastic random packing it its design. The size of the packed tower and plastic random packing is determined by the air to water flow rates. Since many of the...
There are over 307 million lakes in the World and that doesn’t even take into account man-made lakes or reservoirs and the majority of those are only 2.5 acres. Lakes are open systems and capture tons of organic material including trash, run-off, airborne debris, and algae. Most of the lake pollution occurs from human activity so it’s up to us to fix it. That’s why BCMbio™ has developed a complete line of lake management solutions to clean up even the most polluted body of water.
Complete line of wet scrubbers for all metals mining applications. Scrubbers for removal of acid gases, particulate and mists from acidulation, reaction tanks and dryers. Sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, ammonia and hydrogen cyanide removal. Control of micron and submicron size particulate metal fumes from rotary furnaces.
Hydrogen Peroxide as a Replacement for Sodium Hypochlorite
Hydrogen peroxide may be used in both mist scrubbers and packed tower scrubbers as a replacement for sodium hypochlorite (bleach). Like bleach, the process involves two concurrent mechanisms: 1) absorption of the odors (H2S) into the alkaline scrubbing solution; and 2) oxidation of the absorbed sulfide in solution.
H2S + NaOH → NaSH + H2O
4H2O2 + H2S → H2SO4 + 4H2O
Typical dose ratios are 5 parts H2O2 per part H2S or, when...
As a wastewater treatment solutions provider, USALCO® offers a complete aluminum portfolio to municipalities and companies to treat sewage and industrial waste. Much of wastewater produced today is contaminated with both soluble and insoluble impurities such as suspended solids, organics, pathogens, metals, nutrients and other priority pollutants that must be removed prior to discharge back into the environment. Federal, state, and local governments have created stringent environmental laws which define the...
Protea was asked to supply a high level ammonia (NH3) measurement system for a waste water treatment plant. The reflux drums at the inlet to two ammonia stripping towers needed to be measured continuously. Protea designed a solution based around our Solus TDLAS analyser platform and a high level dilution system. The Solus analyser was configured for NH3 measurements in the range 0-500ppm. A dilution system incorporating special dilution probe and 19` control panel was installed before the analyser. This gave a...
In wastewater treatment, the aeration system is often the largest energy consumer. It seems the age-old answer for every problem was to increase horsepower and add more aeration. When you analyze aeration, only 20% to 50% of the energy consumed is needed for production of dissolved oxygen (DO) for processing BOD and nitrifying bacteria. The remaining energy is used just for the mixing effect.
akvoFloat™ can handle any effluent in the metallurgical industry –regardless of the oil and TSS concentration– as a one-stop pretreatment solution for the reuse and discharge of challenging effluents, acting as a reliable absolute barrier. Unlike conventional technologies, akvoFloat™ can remove dispersed and emulsified oils.
Fine filtration is essential to help maintain water quality when pumping out source water directly to fish tanks or in recirculating or closed loop systems in commercial aquaculture systems. Recirculating water systems are very common and used to minimize or reduce dependence on water exchange and flushing in fish culture units.
Over the last thirty years, the Aquaculture industry has seen tremendous growth worldwide. Now, US producers are struggling because international suppliers are flooding the domestic market and driving prices down. Recently, the industry has been turned upside down with the introduction of the bio-floc technology. The underlying principle of the bio-floc technology is to create an environment that is “biologically” dominated, as opposed to the traditional system of allowing algae to be the primary...
Control of emissions is often required due to the hazardous nature of the contaminant. Often, control or removal is necessary due to offensive odours. Ammonia, sulfur and other related compounds fall in these categories. Macrotek offers many control technologies to capture ammonia and other odour causing contaminants. Reagents are often used to neutralize and stabilize the by-product.
Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) refers to the effects on human health of various factors that are properties or constituents of the air we breathe and generally indoors. Very briefly, we can say that a series of events led to the finding that many chemical or biological substances can be inhaled which can cause various health problems which start as simple disorders but lead to serious illnesses. Of similar importance are several natural parameters of the so-called `interior environment`.
The largest volume effluents in petroleum refining include “sour” process water and non-oily/non-sour but highly alkaline process water. Sour water is generated through a number of processes, such as:
- Vacuum distillation
- Middle distillate hydrodesulphurization
- Catalytic cracking
- Visbreaking/thermal cracking
Sour water may be contaminated with hydrocarbons, hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, organic sulfur compounds, organic acids, and phenol....
PLAZKAT Aero units are used to neutralize bad smells from waste treatment facilities, caused by the presence of sulfur and nitrogen compounds - hydrogen sulfide, mercaptans, and ammonia. Urban waste treatment facilities, local waste treatment systems in factories, pumping stations in waste water treatment systems are characterized by a strong smell of sulfur and nitric compounds.