Chlorine Dosing Articles

  • Free and residual chlorine according to DIN EN ISO 7393-1

    Metrohm is pleased to present an Application Bulletin describing the determination of free and total chlorine by iodometric titration. To disinfect water for human consumption, chlorine is added to the water in some countries. Because ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Water Treatment System Types and Their Benefits

    Water is one of the most important utilities in the world. It’s used for bathing, cooking, washing clothes, cleaning dishes, and drinking. If you get your water from the city, you trust your tap water to be clean and healthy. It goes through a treatment plant before it reaches you, so it’s perfectly purified when it reaches you—right? Unfortunately, this isn’t always the ...

  • Global experiences in optimizing biofouling control through Pulse-Chlorination®

    ABSTRACT Cooling water systems provide optimal conditions for settlement and growth of fouling species, e.g. mussels, oysters and barnacles. Excessive biofouling results in major operational upsets and even unplanned shutdowns. Controlling micro- and macrofouling organisms in once-through cooling water systems is key for safe reliable operation. For this, chlorination is globally still ...


    By Sweco Nederland BV

  • 4 reasons chlorine dioxide should be your preferred sanitiser

    To the lay-person, a commercial kitchen is just a floor and some equipment that needs a good clean regularly. They don’t understand the dangers of bacterial contamination and how easy it is for food to be affected. Most commercial kitchens will use bleach, or a similar sanitiser, to keep their space safe. Today, we will share with you the top five reasons you should be using chlorine ...


    By NW Solutions

  • Chlorine Dioxide – dispelling the myths

    The internet is an incredibly useful research tool. It allows us to source and share information instantaneously. Unfortunately, this means that myths and misconceptions can spread very quickly and obscure the truth. In this post, we aim to tackle some of the myths that surround chlorine dioxide, and how this differs from our chlorine dioxide based product CleanOxide. Myth 1: Pure chlorine ...


    By NW Solutions

  • N. Railroad Ave. Plume Superfund Site - New Mexico

    The NRAP site is a state-lead site in its 7th year of groundwater treatment operations by in-situ enhanced reductive dechlorination. The site’s lead agency, the New Mexico Environment Department (NMED), recently completed a response action report to document ongoing progress in their remediation efforts. NMED utilized EnviroInsite in that effort to assist in the interpretation of sampling ...


    By EarthSoft, Inc

  • MYTH vs TRUTH: “If my disinfectant residual is always high enough, I don’t have to worry about microbes”

    Monitoring disinfectant residuals (i.e. Free and Total Chlorine and/or Chloramine concentration) is one of the most essential practices in drinking water management programs.  This ensures that sufficient protection is maintained at all points in the distribution system.  The absence of a disinfectant residual means that suppression of microbiological growth is much more difficult and ...

  • Atomic Layer Etching – Changing the Art of the Possible

    The society of vacuum coaters (SVC) deserves to be better known. It was founded in 1957 during a surge in the use of vacuum coating techniques such as sputtering and evaporation. The techniques go back a very long way: that man Edison filed a patent for coating phonograph cylinders in 1892 (It will never catch on). Did you know that the shiny surface inside your crisp packet is a vacuum ...


    By Oxford Instruments plc

  • Why you should be wary of using chlorine to treat drinking water

    Clean drinking water is something we often take for granted. At the turn of a tap, we have access to chlorinated water for every day use. However, for people who don’t want or can’t access scheme water, there is often a question of how to treat other water sources to make them safe. Chlorine is the most common water treatment agent. It is used by the Department of Health in Western ...


    By NW Solutions

  • New Paper: Atomic layer etching using advanced plasma etch technology

    Scientists at Plasma Technology demonstrate Atomic Layer Etching (ALEt) of Silicon, using advanced technology  and plasma process knowledge. Read the article in JVST by Andy Goodyear and Dr Mike Cooke, Oxford Instruments Atomic layer etching using plasma is a cyclical etching process of gas dosing and surface bombardment that removes material layer ...


    By Oxford Instruments plc

  • People Power Leads to Shower Power at Thames Water - Case study

    Thames Water purchased a large number of Emergency Tank Showers from Hughes Safety Showers. And who better to make the decision as to what showers should be installed than the users themselves. Learn more about their unique decision making process. Article originally written for the Thames Water ...

  • Variability of water residence time and free chlorine and disinfection by-product concentrations within a residential neighborhood

    Sampling campaigns at several points in a sector of a distribution network were conducted during several months to study the spatial and temporal variation of the free chlorine concentration (FCC) and disinfection by-product concentrations (DBPC) at the scale of a residential neighborhood. The water residence times (RT) at these sampling points and for the same period were also simulated using ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational swimmers

    The volume of water ingested by swimmers while swimming is of great interest to individuals who develop risk assessments using quantitative microbial risk assessment or epidemiological approaches. We have used chloroisocyanurate disinfected swimming pool waters to determine the amount of water swallowed by swimmers during swimming activity. The chloroisocyanurate, which is in equilibrium with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigation of natural organic matter (NOM) character and its removal in a chlorinated and chloraminated system at Rand Water, South Africa

    In its natural environment, natural organic matter (NOM) is not problematic. However, during water treatment NOM does affect water quality specifically during the disinfection step, where if NOM is present it reacts with disinfectants resulting in the formation of disinfection by-products. To emphasize the importance of NOM monitoring during potable water treatment this study aimed to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of chlorine decay models under transient conditions in a water distribution system

    Residual chlorine concentration decreases along distribution networks because of factors such as water quality, physical properties of the pipeline, and hydraulic conditions. Hydraulic conditions are primarily governed by transient events generated by valve modulation or pumping action. We investigate the impact of transient events on the rate of chlorine decay under various flow conditions. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What methods of disinfecting water are there?

    The aim behind disinfecting water is to make it safe to drink. As the water experts, NW Solutions will look at some of the different methods to disinfect water and their advantages and disadvantages. To be considered for this list, the disinfectant must: Destroy all types of pathogens, regardless of volume, present in the water Not make the water toxic or render it ...


    By NW Solutions

  • Treatment and potential reuse of greywater from schools: a pilot study

    This study presented performance data on a low cost and easy maintenance pilot system for on-site treatment and reuse of water collected from wash sinks and fountains, as major sources of greywater (GW) at schools. Various treatment options were studied including screening, sand filtration, chlorination, and UV disinfection operated at different flow rates. Results showed that filtration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Effect of sodium hypochlorite on typical biofilms formed in drinking water distribution systems

    Human health and biological safety problems resulting from urban drinking water pipe network biofilms pollution have attracted wide concern. Despite the inclusion of residual chlorine in drinking water distribution systems supplies, the bacterium is a recalcitrant human pathogen capable of forming biofilms on pipe walls and causing health risks. Typical drinking water bacterial biofilms and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - Filtralite Fredrikstad

    When renovating the filters the waterworks was interested in testing alternative filter media and replaced the anthracite layer in one of the filters with Filtralite® media for evaluation. Filtralite® is a filter media made of expanded clay and delivered by Saint-Gobain (Weber). In March 2002 Filtralite® media was installed on top of the existing sand in one out of totally 8 filters. ...

  • Effect of total organic carbon and aquatic humic substances on the occurrence of lead at the tap

    Homes with lead service lines (LSLs) in the City of Brandon, Manitoba, Canada, were found to exceed the provincial standard of 10 μg/L for lead in drinking water. Solids identified by X-ray diffraction of LSL scale were Pb5O8 and PbO2, indicating that lead(II) solids in the LSL scale have been oxidized to lead(IV) solids by free chlorine residuals. Natural organic matter (NOM) ...


    By IWA Publishing

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