chlorination chemical Articles

  • Dangers of Chlorine

    Most of us have grown up with the idea that whiter whites (and brighter colors) mean cleaner clothes. We continue to use chlorine products with abandon to whiten and to disinfect. We write on white paper and bathe in and drink chlorinated water. After all, who wants bacteria-infested water? In our society, chlorine is ubiquitous-and so are its side effects. In fact, the long-term residual effects ...

  • Indoor Air Quality Guideline - Chlorinated Chemicals in your Home

    Several chlorinated chemicals can cause cancer and other serious health problems. These chemicals can come from consumer products you buy in the store, dry-cleaned clothes, and treated municipal water. Air levels of these chemicals, therefore, are generally higher in your home than outdoors. This indoor air quality guideline can help you identify possible sources of six common chlorinated ...

  • The Wonders of Ammonia & Chlorine

    The two most common chemicals found in your home, office and commercial facilities in one form or another are Ammonia (NH3) and Chlorine (Cl2). They are also two of the oldest and most widely produced chemicals in commercial use around the world. Ammonia, a refrigerant by “nature” Refrigeration by mechanical means goes back to the 1800s and ammonia was among the earliest chemicals to ...

  • Chlorination by-products of fenitrothion

    The mutagens produced through chemical reaction between chlorine and the insecticide fenitrothion were studied by using a quadrupole GC-MS. The mutagenicity and the mutagen formation potential (MFP) of the identified by-products were evaluated by the Ames assay (preincubation method) using Salmonella typhimurium TA100 without exogenous activation by S9 mix (TA100-S9). Before conducting GC/MS ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine levels in pools

    In response to a SportExcel CPD seminar in April 2004 on pool water disinfection ISRM is reissuing this updated guidance. Also, recent press reports have highlighted the theoretical risks of high chlorine levels in swimming pools in relation to both pregnant women and levels of childhood asthma. This further reinforces the need for operators to provide the highest pool water standards possible. ...

  • Reclaimed Water Chlorination: Reducing Chemical Cost and Improving Disinfection Efficiency

     ABSTRACT Irvine Ranch Water District’s (IRWD’s) Michelson Water Reclamation Plant (MWRP) produces 14 MGD of reclaimed water for unrestricted landscape irrigation. The reclaimed water distribution system includes two seasonal storage reservoirs that are considered waters of the State. Nitrogen removal at the plant and dechlorination prior to the reservoirs are therefore required. The ...

  • Chlorine resistant membrane: the mechanism of membrane degradation by chlorine

    Polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used successfully for water desalination is made from the interfacial reaction of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) with trimesoyl chloride. One problem with the membrane is that its performance is deteriorated upon prolonged exposure to chlorine often used for disinfecting feed water. ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis show chlorine reacts with the amide hydrogen and is ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Chlorinated hydrocarbons - Case Study

    Example: Pharmaceutical industry Similar tasks: Chemical industry The Pharmaceutical industry uses different processes to create chlorinated hydrocarbons. In a regenerative thermal oxidiser (RTO) the chlorinated organic contaminants are destroyed at high temperature. Chlorinated hydrocarbons - among others - are converted into hydrogen chloride which produces a ...

  • The impact of chlorine disinfection on biochemical oxygen demand levels in chemically enhanced primary treatment effluent

    The response trends of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and organic strength after the chlorination/dechlorination process were explored through a 2-year, 5-month chemically enhanced primary treatment (CEPT) effluent onsite monitoring program and a 2-month laboratory-scale study. The monitoring results showed that better instantaneous mixing at the chlorine injection point reduced the effect of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • On-Site Chlorine Generation Feasibility Study

     ABSTRACT Gaseous chlorine has been effectively used for disinfection in drinking water and wastewater treatment for decades. While various regulatory programs have placed numerous restrictions on the uses of this chemical due to its hazardous nature, recent focus on the possibility of a terrorist attack at a drinking water or wastewater facility, has underscored the potential hazard ...

  • Chlorinated solvents: methylene chloride and TCE

    Introduction This paper presents the results of a scaled and phased approach to source remediation of high concentrations of recalcitrant chlorinated solvent compounds via soil vapor extraction (SVE) and vapor treatment at a Site in Southern California. Phase I began with refrigerated condensation (C3) in order to achieve high mass removal rates to reduce lifecycle costs and time ...


    By GEO Inc

  • Chlorine resistant membrane and the mechanism of membrane

    Polyamide reverse osmosis membrane used successfully for water desalination is made from the interfacial reaction of meta-phenylenediamine (MPD) with trimesoyl chloride. One problem with the membrane is that its performance is deteriorated upon prolonged exposure to chlorine often used for disinfecting feed water. ATR-FTIR and XPS analysis show chlorine reacts with the amide hydrogen and is ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Peracetic Acid – is it an Environmentally Friendly Alternative to Chlorine?

     ABSTRACT Concerns with chlorine disinfection have led to investigation of alternative disinfectants for use in the environmental arena. Are there environmentally safe alternatives to chlorine? Is peracetic acid one among these? Peracetic acid is one among several chemicals that have been touted as a replacement in recent years. Peracetic acid is very effective in killing bacteria, ...

  • Effect of wastewater chlorination on endocrine disruptor removal

    Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are compounds of mainly anthropogenic origin that interfere with the endocrine system of animals and humans thus causing a series of disorders. Wastewater treatment plants are one of the major routes for transporting such chemicals to the water courses. In the context of this study, several chlorination batch tests were performed in order to assess the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Ultraviolet Light Oxidation of Free-Chlorine in Water

    Chlorine is the most frequently used chemical for water disinfection. Many industrial and commercial manufacturing facilities cannot tolerate the introduction of chlorine into the process because of contamination and unwanted chemical reactions. Chlorine affects the flavour and odour of drinks and fluids, accelerates corrosion on process vessels and piping, and can also damage delicate process ...

  • Reference: Clever water recycling with chlorine dioxide

    Vapour water at the Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl dairy is disinfected and then returned to the production process by means of a chlorine dioxide system. The great news is that this significantly reduces water consumption and operating costs. Fewer costs The 160 members of staff at the diary "Milchwerk Crailsheim-Dinkelsbühl eG" process around 130,000 tonnes of milk a year, ...

  • Chlorine removal with KDF 55 - Case Study

    KDF 55 Process Medium Helps with Removing Chlorine in a Municipal Water Treatment Facility A Los Angeles-based maker of fashion jeans uses KDF media instead of chemicals for removing chlorine when treating municipal water in their stone-washing process. High-purity copper-zinc redox water filter media consistently provides 99% of free chlorine removal from water by ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

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