reductive chlorination Articles

  • Reduction of chlorinous odor by the combination of oxidation and ion-exchange treatments

    To better control chlorinous odor in tap water, we assessed the performance of the combination of oxidation (ozonation or advanced oxidation processes, AOP) and ion-exchange treatment. In this process, the hydrophilic neutral fraction (a major dissolved organic matter (DOM) fraction) is converted to ionic species, and these ions and ammonium ion are effectively removed during ion-exchange ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simultaneous reduction of by-products of chlorine dioxide and chlorine using Fe(II)–Al(III) coagulant mixture

    Ferrous iron has been considered very useful for removal of chlorite, a by-product of chlorine dioxide. However, a serious problem can occur associated with high residual iron concentrations in water after Fe(II) treatment, especially at weak acidic condition (pH 6), having a higher capacity of chlorite reduction. Simultaneous removal of chlorite, dissolved iron, and humic acids was achieved with ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Trihalomethane reduction in drinkable water by controlled chlorination and use of hydrogen peroxide

    The reduction of trihalomethane (THM) formation in the water treatment process by a controlled chlorination of ammonia and successive quenching with hydrogen peroxide has been studied. The optimum values of the process parameters have been determined with a calculation programme that makes use of the kinetic constants determined with the water to be treated. The obtained data have been verified ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • pH control for enhanced reductive bioremediation of chlorinated solvent source zones

    Enhanced reductive dehalogenation is an attractive treatment technology for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent DNAPL source areas. Reductive dehalogenation is an acid-forming process with hydrochloric acid and also organic acids from fermentation of the electron donors typically building up in the source zone during remediation. This can lead to groundwater acidification thereby ...


    By True Blue Technologies, Inc.

  • Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Treatment Using HRC® Results in Long-Term Contaminant Reduction

    CASE SUMMARY Manufacturing Facility, New York Industrial operations at this manufacturing facility resulted in a subsurface contaminant plume containing high levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons. Within the source area, contaminant concentrations, consistent with the presence of dense non-aqueous phase liquid (DNAPL), reached 480 parts per million (ppm) ...


    By Regenesis

  • Results of the Application of Enhanced Reductive Dechlorination of Chlorinated Organics at Eight Sites (PDF)

    Enhanced reductive dechlorination is becoming more widely evaluated as a technology for the remediation of chlorinated organic compounds. The performance of this technology as reported in the literature, is often quite variable, making it difficult to evaluate the applicability of the technology. CH2M HILL has been involved in the application of this technology at several sites over the past few ...


    By Regenesis

  • Design tool for estimation of buffer requirement for enhanced reductive dechlorination of chlorinated solvents in groundwater

    To assist in the design of enhanced reductive dechlorination systems for in situ remediation of chlorinated solvent source zones, the software BUCHLORAC (BUffering of deCHLORination ACidity) was developed to predict the amount of buffer required to maintain the groundwater pH in a DNAPL treatment zone within the optimal range for dechlorinating bacteria. Reductive dechlorination is an acidforming ...


    By True Blue Technologies, Inc.

  • Controlling the addition of Chlorine into a Process

    There are several methods for controlling the addition of chlorine into a process. These methods include flow proportional injection, ORP (oxidation reduction potential) or a residual chlorine analyzer. Each method measures a different process characteristic. Depending on the specific type of process being controlled, there generally is a best choice for controlling the injection of either ...


    By Walchem, Iwaki America Inc.

  • Sanitation Using Ozone & Chlorine

    For nearly 100 years, ozone has been used all over the world for water sanitation. It is nature’s strongest oxidizer and has a byproduct of pure oxygen. Chlorine, on the other hand, is a very effective, time-proven chemical, but is ineffective against hard-to-kill microorganisms such as cryptosporidium. It also has some unpleasant byproducts. Together, however, these two substances can ...


    By ClearWater Tech LLC

  • The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sludge reduction by direct addition of chlorine dioxide into a sequencing batch reactor under operational mode of repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration

    The effect of direct addition of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) into a repeatedly alternating aeration/non-aeration sequencing batch reactor (SBR) on its sludge reduction and process performance was investigated. The experimental results showed that the sludge reduction efficiency was 32.9% and the observed growth yield (Yobs) of SBR was 0.11 kg VSS (volatile suspended solids) /kg COD (chemical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking water: the problem of chlorinous odours

    Chlorinous off-flavours in drinking water are a leading cause of complaints to Australian water utilities and other utilities worldwide. The occurrence and causes of chlorinous odours in drinking water were investigated with the use of an odour panel, trained using a modified flavour profile analysis technique. A new system for classifying water types according to the causes of chlorinous odours ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Landfill remediation with refrigerants and chlorinated solvents

    PROJECT DESCRIPTION Between 1979 and 1980, industrial and hazardous wastes were disposed of at the Site in a series of unlined pits, each of which was used for a particular type of waste disposal. It is reported based on evaluations of manifests that approximately 3.4 million gallons of hazardous liquid wastes and between 3,700 and 4,100 tons of solid wastes were disposed of in the pits ...


    By GEO Inc

  • Tampa Switches to Chlorine for Water Treatment

    Many Tampa residents received a notice in the mail a few days ago alerting them that the city is temporarily changing their disinfecting agent from chloramines to chlorine. The notice, which you can read in full below, claims that this procedure is merely routine maintenance and that the water will still be safe to drink. ...


    By Enviro Water Products

  • An Observational Study on the Effectiveness of Point-Of-Use Chlorination

    Although the efficacy of chlorine disinfection under controlled laboratory conditions is well known, the effectiveness of chlorine under field point-of-use (POU) conditions is still not clearly understood and may be impacted by a variety of factors. This study evaluated the effectiveness of POU chlorine disinfection in rural Ecuador under typical use conditions and compared this effectiveness ...

  • Bioaugmentation to Treat Chlorinated Solvents in Fractured Bedrock

    ABSTRACT: An in situ bioremediation pilot study was performed at a former industrial site in New Jersey where groundwater has been impacted by historical releases of chlorinated solvents. The target area for treatment is a fractured, intermediate bedrock zone. The remedial objective at the Site is to treat the groundwater while minimizing the impact of the remedial system on the re-development of ...


    By EOS Remediation, LLC

  • Rapid Reduction of VOCs Results in Site Closure

    Summary Subsurface investigations at a dry cleaning facility revealed elevated levels of PCE and other regulated daughter products. A remediation technology was needed that could cost-effectively reduce the contaminants to the Washington Department of Ecology’s (WDOE) cleanup levels. HRC was chosen for groundwater remediation due to its ability to provide a low cost solution for site ...


    By Regenesis

  • Effect of advanced water treatment on behaviour of residual chlorine and development of chlorine control method in distribution systems

    The behaviour of residual chlorine concentration in drinking water treated by the mid-chlorination or the advanced water treatment (AWT) was investigated. The AWT removes dissolved organic matter more than the mid-chlorination, thus the rate of residual chlorine reduction is decreased. The analysis of chlorine concentration data measured by automated continuous monitoring devices revealed that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chlorine Dioxide gas detection: A comprehensive guide

    Introduction Some years agoago, the bleaching process in the paper industry was changed from using Chlorine (Cl2) as bleaching agent to Chlorine dioxide (ClO2). This was a challenge forThis posed a major challenge to industrial hygienists, as there were no sensors or detectors available that were specific to Chlorine dioxide: There was no sensor technology for gas detectors available that ...

  • Modeling trichloroethene reduction in a hydrogen-based biofilm

    We constructed a multispecies biofilm model for simultaneous reduction of trichloroethene (TCE) and nitrate (NO3−) in the biofilm of a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR). The one-dimensional model includes dual-substrate Monod kinetics for a steady-state biofilm with multiple solid and dissolved components. The model has five solid components: autotrophic ...


    By IWA Publishing

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