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Chlorine Free Water Treatment Applications

  • Cyanide Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide

    Cyanides are used in a number of chemical synthesis and metallurgical processes (as simple salts or cyanide complexes). As a class, cyanides are highly toxic and must be destroyed or removed from wastewaters prior to discharge. The most common method for treating free or simple cyanide is alkaline chlorination. However, chlorination of cyanide results in highly toxic intermediates (e.g., cyanogen chloride) and, if organic material is present, chlorinated VOC’s. These compounds, together with the residual chlorine, create additional environmental problems. Consequently, there is a growing need for alternative, non-chlorine methods for destroying cyanides. Peroxygen compounds such as hydrogen peroxide, peroxymonosulfuric acid (1), and persulfates (1) are effective alternatives to alkaline chlorination for destroying free and complexed cyanides. The choice of peroxygen system depends on the reaction time available, the desired products (cyanate, or CO2 and NH3), the types of cyanides being treated (free, weak acid dissociable, or inert), and the system economics. Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide While hydrogen peroxide will oxidize free cyanide, it is common to catalyze the reaction with a transition metal such as soluble copper, vanadium, tungsten or silver in concentrations of 5 to 50 mg/L (2).

    By USP Technologies based in Atlanta, GEORGIA (US) (USA).

  • Ozone/UV systems for swimming pool water treatment

    Studies have proven that chlorine use has negative consequences due to the formation of byproducts, i.e. chlorinated organic compounds and chloramines. Irritation of eyes and mucous membranes, drying out the skin as well as “chlorine smell” are well known troubles. However, these byproducts also accelerate the corrosion in pool halls and significant risk is given by their toxicity (chloramines, combined chlorine) and/or carcinogenicity. Higher rate of asthma prevalence is one of the consequences. These are the reasons why the combined chlorine content - as a marker of chlorination byproducts presence - is to be monitored and why its limit values are specified by authorities. To meet the limits can be tedious and expensive because more water has to be changed and heated up. Chlorine disinfection is not sufficient to prevent infections caused by some waterborne pathogens as dangerous protozoan parasites Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.

    By Lifetech based in Brno, CZECH REPUBLIC.

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