Fouling Control Articles

  • Performances and fouling control of a flat sheet membrane in a MBR pilot-plant

    This paper deals with the performance and the optimisation of the hydraulic operating conditions of the A3 Water Solutions flat sheet membrane technology in a MBR pilot-plant to achieve a satisfying fouling control and also a reduction in the required aeration. Two vertically stacked modules were tested at pilot-scale at Anjou Recherche under typical biological operating conditions (mixed liquor ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of membrane properties on physically reversible and irreversible fouling in membrane bioreactors

    This study aimed to examine the impact of membrane properties on membrane fouling in membrane bioreactor (MBR). Membrane fouling was divided into two categories: physically reversible and irreversible fouling. Membrane properties related to each type of membrane fouling were investigated separately. Five microfiltration (MF) and one ultrafiltration (UF) membranes with different properties (pore ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fouling potentials of polysaccharides in membrane bioreactors (MBRs) assessed by lectin affinity chromatography

    In this study, the fouling potentials of polysaccharides contained in mixed liquor suspension in a membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating municipal wastewater were investigated using lectin affinity chromatography. This investigation was carried out with different membranes to assess the effects of membrane materials on fouling potentials of polysaccharides. In lectin affinity chromatography, some ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Surface hydrophilisation and antibacterial functionalisation for microporous polypropylene membranes

    The surface properties of polymer membranes are crucial to their separation performances. For the microporous polypropylene membranes, the high hydrophobicity and lack of functionality easily cause protein adsorption and subsequent microorganism attachment and biofilm formation, i.e. biofouling. Thus, their applications in water treatment, bioseparation and biomedical fields are largely limited. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Nanofiltration for the removal of algal metabolites and the effects of fouling

    Nanofiltration (NF) has been shown to be an effective way of removing organic micropollutants from drinking water due to its size exclusion properties. A rapid bench scale membrane test unit was utilised to trial six NF membranes to remove the algal metabolites, microcystin, cylindrospermopsin, 2-methylisoborneol (MIB) and geosmin (GSM). Membrane fouling due to the algal metabolites was observed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Investigating the fouling layer of polyamide nanofiltration membranes treating two different natural waters: internal heterogeneity yet converging surface properties

    This study investigated the fouling of four polyamide nanofiltration membranes by two surface waters that differed substantially in major properties. The emphasis was on determining the characteristics of the fouling layer on the membranes. The rates of fouling for the two waters differed considerably, with a more rapid flux decline being observed for the water having higher biopolymer and major ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Feasibility of bioflocculation in a high-loaded membrane bioreactor for improved energy recovery from sewage

    The feasibility of a high-loaded membrane bioreactor to improve methane recovery from sewage was investigated. Although the process needs further optimization, it already is feasible to recover at least 35% of the sewage COD. Important aspects for further research are the occurrence of membrane fouling, and the optimum process conditions for bioflocculation, i.e. the proper SRT/HRT ratio, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of the membrane fouling simulator to determine biofouling potential of antiscalants in membrane filtration

    In treatment of groundwater with reverse osmosis, the applied antiscalant can significantly contribute to the formation of biofouling, especially when legislation enforces the use of biodegradable, phosphorous-free products. As an alternative to extensive piloting, the use of the membrane fouling simulator (MFS) is proposed here to assess the biomass growth potential of different antiscalants. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A pilot-scale study of backwashing ultrafiltration membrane with demineralized water

    This study investigates the effectiveness of different backwash waters on ultrafiltration (UF) fouling control on a pilot-scale setup. Surface water and ion exchange (IEX) pretreated surface water were used as feed water. Three backwash waters were tested: demineralized water, UF permeate and nanofiltration (NF) permeate. Results show that backwashing with demineralized water substantially ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Air/water cleaning for the control of particulate fouling

    Fouling of feed spacers in spiral wound membrane elements due to particulate fouling and biofouling is one of the main operational problems of nanofiltration or reverse osmosis membrane plants. Removal of particulate fouling from spiral wound membrane elements is investigated using frequent air/water cleaning (AWC). In a pilot setup two spiral wound elements were operated in parallel and were fed ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fouling propensity of forward osmosis: investigation of the slower flux decline phenomenon

    Forward Osmosis (FO) is a membrane process that uses the natural osmotic pressure of a concentrated draw solution to extract pure water from a feed stream. The attraction of the FO process is that it uses dense membranes, while operating at ambient pressure. This means that the FO process could potentially produce high quality water with lower energy consumption, as compared to the other ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cleaning clay (aluminosilicates) from fouled membranes

    Abstract Within the lifetime of most reverse osmosis (RO) systems some fouling will adversely affect membrane performance. The major constituents of foulants found on the first position during six years of membrane autopsy at the Genesys Membrane laboratory are clay minerals chemically known as aluminosilicates. Clay is a naturally occurring material found in all RO feed waters ...

  • Neosens™ on-line Fouling monitoring for Cooling Towers

    A New Approach to Fouling Control Neosens offers innovative, cost effective sensor solutions for monitoring the presence of biofilm and scale in cooling towers, heat exchangers and other industrial process applications. Fouling in cooling systems is a worldwide, multi-billion dollar problem, reducing energy efficiency, increasing maintenance costs and creating health risks due to ...


  • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis of cleaned and fouled nanofiltration membranes

    In membrane process industries, membrane cleaning is one of the most important concerns from both economical and scientific points of view. Surfaces roughness and phase angle of virgin and fouled membranes were measured and compared before and after chemical cleaning by using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Correlations between the data obtained by this technique (AFM) with the flux and rejection ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Transparent exopolymer particles: Potential agents for organic fouling and

    Transparent exopolymer particles (TEP) are ubiquitous in marine and freshwaters, and have been subject to intensive study by oceanographers and limnologists over the past 15 years. These microscopic organic particles (visualized by Alcian Blue staining for acid polysaccharides) may be considered a planktonic form of exopolymeric substances (EPS). Two aspects relating to the potential involvement ...

  • Control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis

    High levels of iron and manganese, along with large quantities of dissolved gases in the wells created concern for the viability of a conventional desalination design for the proposed City of Camarillo groundwater desalination facility. To identify viable pre-treatment process(es) for the control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis, a 12-month pilot study was undertaken. The pilot study ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • Membrane chemical cleaning: from art to science

    Membrane chemical cleaning is an integral part of operation for micro- and ultrafiltration systems in the water industry and has significant impact on process operations. However, this issue has not been adequately addressed primarily for two reasons: 1) cleaning protocols are typically recommended from membrane manufacturers and some cleaners are proprietary; 2) the issues of membrane fouling ...


    By Pall Corporation

  • Control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis

    High levels of iron and manganese, along with large quantities of dissolved gases in the wells created concern for the viability of a conventional desalination design for the proposed City of Camarillo groundwater desalination facility. To identify viable pre-treatment process(es) for the control of metal oxide fouling in reverse osmosis, a 12-month pilot study was undertaken. The pilot study ...


    By Toray Chemical Korea

  • New approaches for monitoring the marine environment: the case of antifouling paints

    Protection of ships hulls against biofouling has been a problem since man began sailing the seas. The most common protections are specially produced antifouling paints. These paints could be broadly classified in three main groups, or generations, depending on the technology applied: first generation copper-based, second generation organotin-based, and the new, third generation, organotin-free ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Membrane fouling in the nanofiltration of landfill leachate and its impact on trace contaminant removal

    Nanofiltration (NF) is an attractive option for the treatment of landfill leachate. However, membrane fouling can be a major obstacle in the implementation of this technology. In this study, bench-scale filtration experiments were carried out to study the fouling behaviour during the NF of a synthetic landfill leachate. The results indicate that calcium in combination with organic matter could ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

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