Hardness Monitoring Articles

  • Areas Most Prone to Winter Storm Water Can Benefit from Temporary Erosion Control

    Winter can be a beautiful time of year. Generally, there are nice, brief storms and maybe some snow, and everything is fine. But occasionally, we get hit hard with storms that just won’t let up, such as when it rains for days or feet of snow come down—we are left to deal with the consequences. All too often, those consequences involve too much water, despite the work put into ...

  • Deutsche Bahn, Germany - Deutsche Bahn uses Sialex to help control costs at its Mainz facility Case Study

    Deutsche Bahn (DB) has employed Sialex-Rings to control “Scale and Corrosion” in the offices water infrastructure, at their facility in Mainz, Germany Since 2007. After several years of escalating maintenance costs associated with dealing with the results of “hard” water, DB considered two options; an expensive “water softener” option or an environmentally ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Microorganism growth control - Case Study

    KDF Process Media uses Oxidation Reduction Process for Scale and Bacteria Removal A plastic injection molding plant uses KDF media to control microorganisms and eliminate scale build-up in cooling towers-at 25% of the cost of chemical treatments. Photo courtesy of Marley Tooling Technologies, Inc. KDF process media are incorporated into carbon blocks and other matrices for bacteria removal and ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • Know About Tunnel and Environmental Monitoring

    Building a house may take a few months. Someone who has ever supervised the construction of a house must be aware that there are so many activities which are done for it. Now, think about the large construction projects. The roads, flyovers, railway tracks etc. we use today are result of rigorous hard work and planning undertaken by different construction companies. A large number of decisions ...


    By Soldata Limited

  • Analysing four of the most contaminated foodstuffs

    Food adulteration has been around since the Victorian times when cheese was often coloured with lead salts, beer and milk were watered down and flour was bulked out with chalk dust or ground bones [1]. Governments apply stringent legislation and quality standards to food products but the practice of adulteration, driven by greed and profit, is still seen. ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Revisiting the Karlovac Brewery Incident

    As a gas monitoring company, we have been made aware of many tragic incidents concerning gas leaks. One of the most obscure and tragic is the incident which happened at the former Karlovac Brewery in Karlovac, Croatia in 2007. Karlovac Brewery (Karlovačka pivovara) was founded in 1854 and is one of Croatia’s most famous breweries, brewing national ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • The dangers of carbon dioxide

    We are often asked about the effects of carbon dioxide on the body and how to tell if there is a gas leak. As a result of this, we have created this post to provide additional information about exposure to carbon dioxide. What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas which occurs naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere at ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • Tracer study to verify hydraulic limits and determine water residence times in a distribution system: Part I

    This study introduces a methodology for assessing the residence times of drinking water in distribution systems using a tracer. The injection of a tracer followed by an intensive sampling campaign was used to evaluate the residence times of water in Quebec City's main system, which is supplied by the St Charles River. Samples were also analysed to determine the hardness and conductivity ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reconstruction of river water quality missing data using artificial neural networks

    The monitoring of river water quality is important for human life and the health of the environment. However, water quality studies in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, are restricted by the existence of missing data. In this study, the efficiency of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) networks for recovering the missing values of 13 water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How can I detect Nitrite in meat

    In Europe many meat products like ham and smoked pork chop are cured. Curing is a process to preserve meat and sausages by addition of common salt. The meat develops a typical curing taste and becomes red in color. This process is important to avoid a grey coloration and a growth of microorganisms. However the reaction of nitrite with amino acids, can cause the formation of carcinogenic ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Adaptive capacity, drought and the performance of community-based drinking water organizations in Costa Rica

    Community-based drinking water organizations (CBDWOs) are the most important providers of water in rural areas of the developing world. They are responsible for coping with future threats due to climate change, besides other non-climatic drivers of change such as demographic growth. The inherent capacities of CBDWOs to adapt to external drivers of change would be greatly conditioned by their ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • OCFA SAVES THOUSANDS OF DOLLARS EACH YEAR IN MAINTENACE FOLLOWING SCALEWATCHER INSTALLATIONS

    Orange County Fire Authority is saving thousands of dollars a year on expensive maintenance and early renewal of equipment following the installation of the patented, award-winning Scalewatcher computerized, electronic water-conditioner from Scalewatcher North America. Such was the success of the first Scalewatcher installation that 10 more devices have now been installed at other Fire ...

  • A comprehensive factorial design study of variables affecting CaCO3 scaling under magnetic water treatment

    Magnetic water treatment (MWT) could be an interesting alternative to chemical treatment to prevent scaling and has been used as an antiscaling treatment for domestic and industrial equipment. A two level-three factor (23) full factorial design was used to evaluate the effects of pH (6–7.5), flow rate (0.54–0.94) and application of a magnetic field on the induction time (IT), total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of groundwater potential zones using GIS and remote sensing in Noyyal Basin, Tamil Nadu, India

    Groundwater is a dynamic and replenishable natural resource but in hard rock terrain the availability of groundwater is of limited extent. The occurrence and movement of groundwater in an area is governed by several factors. It is therefore, necessary to integrate several factors on these terrain characteristics. This can be best achieved by geographical information system (GIS). River Noyyal ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Lead toxicity to Lemna minor predicted using a metal speciation chemistry approach

    In the present study, predictive measures for Pb toxicity and L. minor were developed from bioassays with 7 surface waters having varied chemistries (i.e., 0.5 to 12.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH 5.4 to 8.3 and water hardness 8 to 266 mg/L CaCO3). As expected based on water quality, 10, 20 and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) values expressed as percent net root elongation (%NRE) ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Industrial pollution scenario due to discharge of waste water effluents along Dombivali Industrial Belt of Mumbai, India - a physico–chemical study

    The paper deals with the study of physico–chemical parameters of industrial effluents discharged from different manufacturing industries situated along the Dombivali Industrial Belt of Mumbai, India. From the results it was observed that the conductivity, salinity, cyanide, TS and COD content of the effluents released from dyeing industries were maximum having the respective values of 23,287 ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Preliminary studies on removal of nitrate and hardness from ground water using polystyrene beads

    Ground water has emerged as the primary water deficiency reduction tool in most developing countries. Recently, the quality of ground water has deteriorated due to over-exploitation and contamination resulting from anthropogenic activities. A broad range of physical, inorganic and organic, bacteriological, and radioactive parameters are found in ground waters. The presence of nitrate and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impacts of liquefaction on the potable water system of Christchurch in the 2010–2011 Canterbury (NZ) earthquakes

    This paper explores the performance of the potable water system of Christchurch during the series of strong earthquakes that hit Canterbury, New Zealand, in 2010–2011. Widespread soil liquefaction, consequent ground deformation (failures) and large lateral spreads shattered the lifelines and infrastructure over approximately one-third of the city area. The wastewater system was hit ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Magnesium in drinking water – a case for prevention?

    Studies in many countries have demonstrated a relationship between drinking water mineral content and the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly strong relationships have been found for magnesium and it has been suggested that magnesium be added to drinking water. The aim of this article is to evaluate the validity of this suggestion by reviewing information on possible ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • SCA Packaging Germany – case study

    OVERVIEW SCA Packaging is a European leading packaging company of customer-specific packaging with emphasis on state-of-art packaging design and local service close to customer facilities. With a product portfolio that includes transit packaging, consumer packaging, displays and promotional packaging, customized protective packaging and industrial packaging. SCA Packaging ...

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