Hardness Monitoring Articles

  • Case Study PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) test results in hard water region

    Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits.  A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known "Scaling" problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an "Open" mind, even those sceptical of our products ...

  • Effect of saltwater intrusion due to over-exploitation and earthquakes on mineralization processes of spring waters over the Massif Bokkoya (central Rif, Morocco)

    The study focuses on the monitoring of physicochemical parameters and major chemical elements of six springs and wells during two seasons. Waters from the coastal karst aquifer Massif Bokkoya Al-Hoceima were analyzed for their chemical quality, and their state of anthropogenic and/or natural contamination was quantified. The waters are highly mineralized and marked by a chloride-sodium or ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparative study of physico-chemical parameters of drinking water from some longevity and non-longevity areas of China

    There is an obvious regional longevity phenomenon in China and many longevity counties are located in South China. This study was carried out to find the characteristics of elemental contents of drinking water in longevity areas in South China and the differences to non-longevity areas in China. A total of 128 drinking water samples were collected from longevity areas in South China (n = 40), ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Areas Most Prone to Winter Storm Water Can Benefit from Temporary Erosion Control

    Winter can be a beautiful time of year. Generally, there are nice, brief storms and maybe some snow, and everything is fine. But occasionally, we get hit hard with storms that just won’t let up, such as when it rains for days or feet of snow come down—we are left to deal with the consequences. All too often, those consequences involve too much water, despite the work put into ...

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Deutsche Bahn, Germany - Deutsche Bahn uses Sialex to help control costs at its Mainz facility Case Study

    Deutsche Bahn (DB) has employed Sialex-Rings to control “Scale and Corrosion” in the offices water infrastructure, at their facility in Mainz, Germany Since 2007. After several years of escalating maintenance costs associated with dealing with the results of “hard” water, DB considered two options; an expensive “water softener” option or an environmentally ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Microorganism growth control - Case Study

    KDF Process Media uses Oxidation Reduction Process for Scale and Bacteria Removal A plastic injection molding plant uses KDF media to control microorganisms and eliminate scale build-up in cooling towers-at 25% of the cost of chemical treatments. Photo courtesy of Marley Tooling Technologies, Inc. KDF process media are incorporated into carbon blocks and other matrices for bacteria removal and ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • On the Seasonal Changes in the Surface Water Chemistry of Museum Lake, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India

    The surface water chemistry of Thiruvananthapuram Museum Lake was carried out in the period of February 2013 to January 2014. Correlation study of the parameters and overall CCME WQI (Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment Water quality Index) was also prepared in the study for the lake water. The parameters analysed are cations such as Ca2+, Na+, Mg2+ and K+ and the anions like PO4-, ...


    By University of Tehran

  • Know About Tunnel and Environmental Monitoring

    Building a house may take a few months. Someone who has ever supervised the construction of a house must be aware that there are so many activities which are done for it. Now, think about the large construction projects. The roads, flyovers, railway tracks etc. we use today are result of rigorous hard work and planning undertaken by different construction companies. A large number of decisions ...


    By Soldata Limited

  • Analysing four of the most contaminated foodstuffs

    Food adulteration has been around since the Victorian times when cheese was often coloured with lead salts, beer and milk were watered down and flour was bulked out with chalk dust or ground bones [1]. Governments apply stringent legislation and quality standards to food products but the practice of adulteration, driven by greed and profit, is still seen. ...


    By Specac Limited

  • Revisiting the Karlovac Brewery Incident

    As a gas monitoring company, we have been made aware of many tragic incidents concerning gas leaks. One of the most obscure and tragic is the incident which happened at the former Karlovac Brewery in Karlovac, Croatia in 2007. Karlovac Brewery (Karlovačka pivovara) was founded in 1854 and is one of Croatia’s most famous breweries, brewing national ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • The dangers of carbon dioxide

    We are often asked about the effects of carbon dioxide on the body and how to tell if there is a gas leak. As a result of this, we have created this post to provide additional information about exposure to carbon dioxide. What is carbon dioxide? Carbon dioxide (CO2) is a gas which occurs naturally in the Earth’s atmosphere at ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • Using biofilms for monitoring metal contamination in lotic ecosystems: The protective effects of hardness and pH on metal bioaccumulation

    Biofilms can make good bioindicators and biomarkers, offering a convenient tool to monitor metal contamination in streams that results from mine tailing sites. Biofilm metal content (Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) as well as diatom diversity and the presence of teratologies (diatom abnormalities) were determined for biofilms from rivers with a variety of physico‐chemical properties across a metal ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Greene King Brewery gas leak – carbon dioxide in breweries

    On Thursday 15 October 2015, a carbon dioxide leak occurred at the Greene King Brewery on an estate in Bury St Edmunds in Suffolk. Emergency services were sent to the incident and nearby residents were evacuated as a precaution. Twenty people were rescued from the building, and the incident was quickly taken control of. ...


    By Analox Sensor Technology

  • How can I measure temporary and permanent water hardness?

    Hard water is water with high levels of dissolved minerals, and usually occurs in areas where limestone and chalk are common. These minerals can be divided into two types, and so hardness is often considered in two categories – permanent and temporary water hardness. So how can we measure water hardness? Can we measure temporary and permanent ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • How to protect sharks and humans at the same time

    In case you somehow missed it, Shark Week has once again descended upon us. The annual summer tradition created by the Discovery Channel in 1988 to raise awareness of sharks through its programming has in recent years seen its hashtag, #SharkWeek, explode across social media. Although some of the fictional content ...


    By Ensia

  • Tracer study to verify hydraulic limits and determine water residence times in a distribution system: Part I

    This study introduces a methodology for assessing the residence times of drinking water in distribution systems using a tracer. The injection of a tracer followed by an intensive sampling campaign was used to evaluate the residence times of water in Quebec City's main system, which is supplied by the St Charles River. Samples were also analysed to determine the hardness and conductivity ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reconstruction of river water quality missing data using artificial neural networks

    The monitoring of river water quality is important for human life and the health of the environment. However, water quality studies in many parts of the world, especially in developing countries, are restricted by the existence of missing data. In this study, the efficiency of the multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF) networks for recovering the missing values of 13 water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How can I detect Nitrite in meat

    In Europe many meat products like ham and smoked pork chop are cured. Curing is a process to preserve meat and sausages by addition of common salt. The meat develops a typical curing taste and becomes red in color. This process is important to avoid a grey coloration and a growth of microorganisms. However the reaction of nitrite with amino acids, can cause the formation of carcinogenic ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • doseBadge Builds up a Head of Steam in York

    Here’s the latest case study from Cirrus Research, featuring the world-famous National Railway Museum. See how the doseBadge Noise Dosimeter helps Anna Kavanagh check that her teams are not exceeding their daily noise exposure limits. The Client: The Science Museum Group The Sites: National Railway Museum, York The Issue: Noise ...


    By Cirrus Research plc

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