Primary Water Treatment Articles

  • On the design and operation of primary settling tanks in state of the art wastewater treatment and water resources recovery

    In state of the art wastewater treatment, primary settling tanks (PSTs) are considered as an integral part of the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process, as well as of the biogas and electric energy production. Consequently they strongly influence the efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment plant. However, in the last decades the inner physical processes of PSTs, largely ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • CFD for wastewater treatment: an overview

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a rapidly emerging field in wastewater treatment (WWT), with application to almost all unit processes. This paper provides an overview of CFD applied to a wide range of unit processes in water and WWT from hydraulic elements like flow splitting to physical, chemical and biological processes like suspended growth nutrient removal and anaerobic digestion. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hydrogen sulfide removal - Case Study

    Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment with KDF 85 Primary Water Treatment Media and Industrial Treatment Media KDF reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form insoluble copper sulfide which can be backwashed off KDF 85 medium. (More information on how KDF 85 process medium works as industrial treatment media and water treatment media.) Typical reaction with KDF 85 process medium - Cu/ZN° + H ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • A tool for evaluation of lifecycle cost of water production for small-scale community projects

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical tool to estimate lifecycle cost for water service provision for small-scale community water projects. The primary objective is to provide an analytical estimation tool to governments, funding agencies and communities to ensure sustainability of water projects. The secondary objective is to use the tool as an industry benchmarking aid to empower ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hanahan water treatment plant, Crisafulli standard-duty FLUMPs-case study

    Application: Solids removal from primary settling basins, Kenneth A. Dorr, Assistant Superintendent Hanahan Water Treatment Plant, Commissioners of Public Works, City of Charleston, South Carolina Installation: 1998. Retired from service 2010 Application: Solids removal from primary settling basins, Kenneth A. Dorr, Assistant ...


    By SRS Crisafulli, Inc.

  • Do wastewater treatment plants act as a potential point source of microplastics? Preliminary study in the coastal Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    This study on the removal of microplastics during different wastewater treatment unit processes was carried out at Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The amount of microplastics in the influent was high, but it decreased significantly during the treatment process. The major part of the fibres were removed already in primary sedimentation whereas synthetic particles settled mostly in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Corn starch-based treatment improves rainwater quality

    Rainwater harvesting can provide an alternative water source, which may demand little treatment, depending on the end use. Some starches have been used in water treatment as coagulant/flocculant/filtration aid, and might be applied as primary coagulant. Here, we show direct filtration with hydraulic rapid mixing, using 2–6 mg L−1 cationic corn starch as primary coagulant, considerably improves ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using peracetic acid or ultraviolet radiation for its reuse in public services

    The disinfection of a continuous flow of an effluent from an advanced primary treatment (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation) with or without posterior filtration, using either peracetic acid (PAA) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation was studied. We aimed to obtain bacteriological quality to comply with the microbiological standard established in the Mexican regulations for treated wastewater reuse ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking Water in China: A Large Untapped Market

    The drinking water market in China is growing and changing the ways Chinese consumers access clean drinking water. Failed by municipal answers thus far, many Chinese are now actively solving their drinking water problems independently rather than wait any longer for improvements in municipal water supply. This has led to an exponential rise in demand for residential water treatment ...


    By Launch Factory 88

  • Technical Focus: Turbidity as Control for Primary Settlement

    Turbidity is a very useful tool when regarding control within the primary settlement stage of water treatment. By utilising turbidity as a control variable during this stage of the process you  can enable a more rapid response to variations in load  and provide early warning  to operators of equipment malfunction before it’s too late; allowing for immediate action to be taken ...


    By Partech (Electronics) Ltd.

  • Wastewater-Primary Treatment

    Primary Treatment is defined as a wastewater treatment process that takes place in a rectangular or circular tank and allows those substances in wastewater that readily settle or float to be separated from the water being treated. This process achieves solids separation. The solids readily available to settle to achieve sedimentation will do so in a settling tank referred as a clarifier. On the ...

  • Wyoming - Oil Camp case study

    The harsh open plains of Southern Wyoming are the home for many oil and natural gas workers. These hard working men and women are a true cross section of Americans looking to provide for their families back home. For many, their homes away from home are modular housing structures setup in a camp setting oftentimes in the middle of their work environment Due to the remote locations, these camps ...


    By Quanics Incorporated

  • Roof over primary settling tanks to prevent air pollution and odours

    The Wastewater Purification Plant (EDAR) in Cambrils, Tarragona, was the setting for a solution deployed by Bioconservación, a gas absorption and air purification specialist. The project involved covering over the settling tanks to prevent hydrogen sulphide dissolved in the water from polluting the surrounding air. The H2S (hydrogen sulphide) dissolved in water as it arrives at the tank in ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

  • Gamma radiolysis of ceftriaxone sodium for water treatment: assessments of the activity

    As large quantities of antibiotics have been misused in human and veterinary medicine, many different classes of antibiotics with low concentration have been detected in the environmental water. This existence may cause severe ecosystem alterations. Ceftriaxone sodium was employed as the targeted antibiotic to evaluate gamma radiolysis of antibiotics based on the primary elimination test and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization of the potential impact of retention tank emptying on wastewater primary treatment: a new element for CSO management

    Theoretical studies have shown that discharges from retention tanks could have a negative impact on the WWTP's (Wastewater Treatment Plant) effluent. Characterization of such discharges is necessary to better understand these impacts. This study aims at: (1) characterizing water quality during emptying of a tank; and (2) characterizing the temporal variation of settling velocities of the waters ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biofouling by bryozoans, Cordylophora and sponges in UK water treatment works

    In recent years biofouling from native (bryozoans, sponges) and non-native (Cordylophora) animals has increased in UK water treatment works (WTW). A survey of six UK water companies and eight WTWs revealed that these taxa were more widespread and abundant than previously recognised. Primary problems related to the occlusion of underfloor nozzles and tailpipes in rapid gravity filter beds (RGFs). ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Biological wastewater treatment Dalian, China

    To manage the demands set for the plant, a biological treatment with fixed bed was chosen. The water first undergoes pre-treatment by screening and grit/grease removal. Primary sedimentation is done in 4 tanks with lamellar sedimentation.   The first step in the biological treatment consists of BOD, COD and SS ...

  • Biological drinking water treatment Hong Kong

    The water treatment works takes water from the river Dongjiang in the Guangdong Province north of Hong Kong. The raw water has an average turbidity level of around 11 NTU and contents, among other things, ammonia and manganese. Water temperatures range from 12 to 34oC.   During planning of the waterworks ...

  • RM-10 + water treatment = $avings

    CETCO Oilfield Services RM-10 flocculant is being utilized at a plating company to remove chrome and cadmium from wastewater, significantly reducing the company’s use of energy during its wastewater treatment process. The plating plant produces between 400 and 800 gallons of wastewater per week. It utilizes two rinse baths, one with chrome and one with cadmium. Prior to the application of ...


    By CETCO Energy Services

  • Temporary treatment systems for large construction site in Stratford, East London case study

    Posted March 2009 by WPL Limited Filter refurbishment program for 2000 site workers/staff Site Contractor: Natta Building Company Peak flow to treatment: 10.5l/s Designed consent standard: 20 mg/l BOD, 30 mg/l TSS & 10 mg/l NH4 Maximum incoming BOD: 380 mg/l Maximum incoming NH4: 50 mg/l Units supplied: 4 off 300pe GRP ...


    By WPL Ltd

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