Primary Water Treatment Articles

  • Case Study - Wiggins Road Water Purification Works

    ASW Engineering, a supplier of water treatment systems in southern Africa, was awarded the contract by Umgeni Water to refurbish 12 twin-cell rapid gravity sand filters. The company’s initial assessment of the problem was that the sealing between the filter nozzle sleeves and the concrete panels, and the sealant used in between the precast slabs of the filter floor, had deteriorated due to ...


    By Cadar Ltd.

  • Case study - Hong Kong

    To meet the forecasted increases in demand for potable water, the new Tai Po Water Treatment Works has been built in Hong Kong. The plant has a production capacity of 1200 Ml/day This solution strongly reduced the chlorine demand for the plant compared to the alternative execution with break point chlorina The water treatment works takes water from the river Dongjiang in the Guangdong ...

  • Household greywater treatment methods using natural materials and their hybrid system

    Discharge of household greywater into water bodies can lead to an increase in contamination levels in terms of the reduction in dissolved oxygen resources and rapid bacterial growth. Therefore, the quality of greywater has to be improved before the disposal process. The present review aimed to present a hybrid treatment system for the greywater generated from households. The hybrid system ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • On the design and operation of primary settling tanks in state of the art wastewater treatment and water resources recovery

    In state of the art wastewater treatment, primary settling tanks (PSTs) are considered as an integral part of the biological wastewater and sludge treatment process, as well as of the biogas and electric energy production. Consequently they strongly influence the efficiency of the entire wastewater treatment plant. However, in the last decades the inner physical processes of PSTs, largely ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • CFD for wastewater treatment: an overview

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a rapidly emerging field in wastewater treatment (WWT), with application to almost all unit processes. This paper provides an overview of CFD applied to a wide range of unit processes in water and WWT from hydraulic elements like flow splitting to physical, chemical and biological processes like suspended growth nutrient removal and anaerobic digestion. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hydrogen sulfide removal - Case Study

    Hydrogen Sulfide Treatment with KDF 85 Primary Water Treatment Media and Industrial Treatment Media KDF reacts with hydrogen sulfide to form insoluble copper sulfide which can be backwashed off KDF 85 medium. (More information on how KDF 85 process medium works as industrial treatment media and water treatment media.) Typical reaction with KDF 85 process medium - Cu/ZN° + H ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • A tool for evaluation of lifecycle cost of water production for small-scale community projects

    The aim of this study is to develop an analytical tool to estimate lifecycle cost for water service provision for small-scale community water projects. The primary objective is to provide an analytical estimation tool to governments, funding agencies and communities to ensure sustainability of water projects. The secondary objective is to use the tool as an industry benchmarking aid to empower ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hanahan water treatment plant, Crisafulli standard-duty FLUMPs-case study

    Application: Solids removal from primary settling basins, Kenneth A. Dorr, Assistant Superintendent Hanahan Water Treatment Plant, Commissioners of Public Works, City of Charleston, South Carolina Installation: 1998. Retired from service 2010 Application: Solids removal from primary settling basins, Kenneth A. Dorr, Assistant ...


    By SRS Crisafulli, Inc.

  • Do wastewater treatment plants act as a potential point source of microplastics? Preliminary study in the coastal Gulf of Finland, Baltic Sea

    This study on the removal of microplastics during different wastewater treatment unit processes was carried out at Viikinmäki wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The amount of microplastics in the influent was high, but it decreased significantly during the treatment process. The major part of the fibres were removed already in primary sedimentation whereas synthetic particles settled mostly in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Corn starch-based treatment improves rainwater quality

    Rainwater harvesting can provide an alternative water source, which may demand little treatment, depending on the end use. Some starches have been used in water treatment as coagulant/flocculant/filtration aid, and might be applied as primary coagulant. Here, we show direct filtration with hydraulic rapid mixing, using 2–6 mg L−1 cationic corn starch as primary coagulant, considerably improves ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Disinfection of an advanced primary effluent using peracetic acid or ultraviolet radiation for its reuse in public services

    The disinfection of a continuous flow of an effluent from an advanced primary treatment (coagulation-flocculation-sedimentation) with or without posterior filtration, using either peracetic acid (PAA) or ultraviolet (UV) radiation was studied. We aimed to obtain bacteriological quality to comply with the microbiological standard established in the Mexican regulations for treated wastewater reuse ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Drinking Water in China: A Large Untapped Market

    The drinking water market in China is growing and changing the ways Chinese consumers access clean drinking water. Failed by municipal answers thus far, many Chinese are now actively solving their drinking water problems independently rather than wait any longer for improvements in municipal water supply. This has led to an exponential rise in demand for residential water treatment ...


    By Launch Factory 88

  • Technical Focus: Turbidity as Control for Primary Settlement

    Turbidity is a very useful tool when regarding control within the primary settlement stage of water treatment. By utilising turbidity as a control variable during this stage of the process you  can enable a more rapid response to variations in load  and provide early warning  to operators of equipment malfunction before it’s too late; allowing for immediate action to be taken ...


    By Partech (Electronics) Ltd.

  • Filter backwash water treatment options

    Filtration acts as the final step in the removal of suspended matter and protozoa. The accumulated residue is removed during the backwash process and any subsequent recycling of filter backwash water could potentially re-introduce these contaminants into the main treatment process. By separating the filter backwash water from the main treatment process, factors that could interfere with the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Wastewater-Primary Treatment

    Primary Treatment is defined as a wastewater treatment process that takes place in a rectangular or circular tank and allows those substances in wastewater that readily settle or float to be separated from the water being treated. This process achieves solids separation. The solids readily available to settle to achieve sedimentation will do so in a settling tank referred as a clarifier. On the ...

  • Wyoming - Oil Camp case study

    The harsh open plains of Southern Wyoming are the home for many oil and natural gas workers. These hard working men and women are a true cross section of Americans looking to provide for their families back home. For many, their homes away from home are modular housing structures setup in a camp setting oftentimes in the middle of their work environment Due to the remote locations, these camps ...


    By Quanics Incorporated

  • Yucaipa, CA - case study

    The Challenge - Upgrade In 2007 the Yucaipa Valley Water District in Yucaipa, CA upgraded their Activated Sludge treatment plant to a Kruger AnoxKaldnes Biofilm + Activated Sludge (HYBAS) process. The plant expansion was driven by an increase in hydraulic loading and a new Total Inorganic Nitrogen Limit that was lowered from 10 mg/L to 6 mg/L. Process Solution The process flow scheme includes ...

  • Roof over primary settling tanks to prevent air pollution and odours

    The Wastewater Purification Plant (EDAR) in Cambrils, Tarragona, was the setting for a solution deployed by Bioconservación, a gas absorption and air purification specialist. The project involved covering over the settling tanks to prevent hydrogen sulphide dissolved in the water from polluting the surrounding air. The H2S (hydrogen sulphide) dissolved in water as it arrives at the tank in ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

  • Gamma radiolysis of ceftriaxone sodium for water treatment: assessments of the activity

    As large quantities of antibiotics have been misused in human and veterinary medicine, many different classes of antibiotics with low concentration have been detected in the environmental water. This existence may cause severe ecosystem alterations. Ceftriaxone sodium was employed as the targeted antibiotic to evaluate gamma radiolysis of antibiotics based on the primary elimination test and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characterization of the potential impact of retention tank emptying on wastewater primary treatment: a new element for CSO management

    Theoretical studies have shown that discharges from retention tanks could have a negative impact on the WWTP's (Wastewater Treatment Plant) effluent. Characterization of such discharges is necessary to better understand these impacts. This study aims at: (1) characterizing water quality during emptying of a tank; and (2) characterizing the temporal variation of settling velocities of the waters ...


    By IWA Publishing

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