Produced Water Articles

  • Where Is the Most Water Reuse Taking Place?

    Water reuse is becoming increasingly important as water scarcity becomes prevalent throughout the world. Whether it’s referred to as water reuse, water recycling, water reclamation, or another name, the resulting purified wastewater can be used in many applications, both potable and nonpotable. In some places, water reuse has been slow to catch on, particularly because of the so-called ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Sustainable Solutions for Italian Biochemical Plant - Case Study

    PROJECT DETAILS LOCATION Adria, Italy CUSTOMER Mater-Biotech (Novamont Group) SOLUTION Well-Water Potabilization, Wastewater Treatment, Waste-to-Energy TECHNOLOGIES Air Scrubber, Sand Filtration, Double-Stage Nitrification-Denitrification, Membrane Bioreactor, CSTR Anaerobic ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Oil and gas industry process analytics in ethylene production plants – Case Study

    Ethylene is the largest volume industrially produced organic material and its majority is used in the production of polymers and derivatives. Between a variety of processes the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons in the presence of steam (steam cracker) is mostly used. Regardless of the process type, all plants require process analytical equipment to collect reliable and accurate process data for ...

  • Use of process analyzers in cement plants solutions from Siemens – Case Study

    Cement is a hydraulic binding agent to produce concrete. Due in part to the fast growth of the Asian economies, world consumption of cement is currently growing at an annual rate of 8%. Therefore, cement production is expanding and, at the same time, production processes need to be optimized to ensure maximum efficiency. In this context, process analytics plays an important role: It determines ...

  • Report: Circular economy offers solutions to water shortages worldwide

    A shift to a circular economy could help save more than 400 billion m3 of water every year While oceans cover more than two-thirds of our planet, only 2.5% of all water on earth is fresh water. With billions of humans seeking water for their personal, agricultural, and commercial needs, the demand for sustainable water resources is at an all-time high. A recent report by ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • 4 Types of Contaminants in Water

    The EPA says that there are 4 type of water contaminants: physical, chemical, radiological, and biological. Its definition includes anything that is not an actual water molecule. That means that naturally occurring things like sediment and water weeds are considered contaminants along with things like oil and uranium. Chances are good that the type of contaminants your company needs to keep out ...

  • (x)ZnO(1 − x)Fe2O3 nanocrystallines for the removal of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) from water: kinetic and adsorption studies

    In this work the efficiency of mechanically prepared magnetic (x)ZnO(1 − x)Fe2O3 nanocrystallines for Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions removal was investigated. The produced nanoparticles were characterized using N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and magnetization techniques. Batch mode experiments were performed to evaluate the parameters of the heavy metal ions adsorption on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • U.S. utilities increasing water reuse investment

    Decreased technology costs are prompting more municipal water utilities in the United States to invest in new water reuse infrastructure. In fact, a new forecast projects more than $18 billion in water reuse and desalination projects are on tap in 17 states, according to Bluefield Research analysts. Although water scarcity is a conventional driver for this type of project, the analysts say the ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Prediction of biochemical oxygen demand at the upstream catchment of a reservoir using adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system

    The aim of this study is to examine the potential of adaptive neuro fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) to estimate biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). To illustrate the applicability of ANFIS method, the upstream catchment of Feitsui Reservoir in Taiwan is chosen as the case study area. The appropriate input variables used to develop the ANFIS models are determined based on the t-test. The results ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Process Of Making Charcoal From Straw

    Even though it can be done to utilize organic material in order to create charcoal manually, there are actually machines that could try this for you personally. Straw charcoal is a thing which is easily accessible, that lots of people can purchase from local stores, an alternative choice to using wood. These straw charcoal briquettes are generally long fit, ...


  • Analysis of water balance and runoff generation in high latitude agricultural fields during mild and cold winters

    High-latitude conditions in northern Europe are characterised by short growing seasons (May–August) and long dormant seasons. Alternating mild and freezing conditions lead to variable snow accumulation–melt cycles affecting runoff generation, and consequently the loss of nutrients and sediments from agricultural fields. We assessed water balance in two subsurface drained clayey agricultural ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An optical method for characterizing carbon content in ceramic pot filters

    Ceramic pot filter (CPF) technology is a relatively common means of household water treatment in developing areas, and performance characteristics of CPFs have been characterized using production CPFs, experimental CPFs fabricated in research laboratories, and ceramic disks intended to be CPF surrogates. There is evidence that CPF manufacturers do not always fire their products according to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Solutions for Safe Drinking Water Through Biological Water Treatments

    Most people across the U.S. expect to turn on their faucets and have immediate access to clean drinking water. The truth is, it wasn’t until 1974 that Congress passed the Safe Water Drinking Act with the goal of regulating the nation’s public water supply. Over the years, the SWDA has been amended to include water sources as well, such as rivers, lakes, springs and groundwater wells ...

  • Power Station Slag Recycling - Case Study

    The problem: Coal fired power stations operating tap slag boilers release most of the ashes resulting from the combustion as slag at the boiler bottom. There is a number of such power stations in Europe operative. These boilers are also known as wet bottom boilers. There are two types of wet-bottom boilers: the slag-tap boiler and the cyclone boiler. The slag-tap boiler burns ...


    By Dirk European Holdings LTD

  • A solution to fracturing water supply and disposal issues

    “Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink.” –The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Samuel Taylor Coleridge Many topics of conversation among oil and gas industry professionals are predictable – oil price trends, the “great shift change” imperiling the available workforce, and production quotas and caps from OPEC. Yet one pressing topic among those developing ...


    By Fairmount Santrol

  • Culture-independent methods reveal high diversity of OXA-48-like genes in water environments

    The carbapenemase OXA-48 was identified for the first time in 2001 and is now one of the greatest concerns in terms of antibiotic resistance. While many studies report clinical OXA-48-like producers, few reports refer blaOXA-48-like genes in environmental bacteria. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the diversity of blaOXA-48-like genes in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using business models in designing market-based solutions: the case of fluoride treatment systems

    This paper addresses how business models inform viability of different fluoride treatment technologies for developing countries as well as the pursuit of financial and operational sustainability. Excess fluoride concentrations in drinking water supplies negatively impact the health of communities living in fluoride affected regions of the world by causing dental and skeletal fluorosis and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Recycling of end-of-life reverse osmosis membranes by oxidative treatment: a technical evaluation

    The adverse impacts caused by the disposal of thousands of tonnes per annum of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes modules have grown dramatically around the world. The objective of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of recycling by chemical oxidation of end-of-life RO membranes for applications in other separation processes with specifications less rigorous. The recycling ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Climate change is more than a tech problem, so we need more than a tech solution

    At the COP 21 climate convention in Paris at the end of 2015, leaders from 194 nations agreed to pursue actions that will cut greenhouse gas emissions enough to keep global warming within 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above pre-industrial conditions. Meeting this goal will avoid continued and increasing harm to people and ecosystems around the world caused by a changing climate, and it is also a great ...


    By Ensia

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