Produced Water Articles

  • Use of process analytics in aromatics (BTX and Phenol) production plants – Case Study

    Aromatics are planar, cyclic compounds with conjugated double bonds, consisting of the elements carbon and hydrogen. Aromatics are important intermediates and used as starting materials for a wide range of products. Aromatics are derived from crude oil and, in small quantities, from coal. Process automation equipment including gas chromatographs and other process analyzers contribute essentially ...

  • Oil and gas industry process analytics in ethylene production plants – Case Study

    Ethylene is the largest volume industrially produced organic material and its majority is used in the production of polymers and derivatives. Between a variety of processes the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons in the presence of steam (steam cracker) is mostly used. Regardless of the process type, all plants require process analytical equipment to collect reliable and accurate process data for ...

  • Use of process analyzers in cement plants solutions from Siemens – Case Study

    Cement is a hydraulic binding agent to produce concrete. Due in part to the fast growth of the Asian economies, world consumption of cement is currently growing at an annual rate of 8%. Therefore, cement production is expanding and, at the same time, production processes need to be optimized to ensure maximum efficiency. In this context, process analytics plays an important role: It determines ...

  • 4 Types of Contaminants in Water

    The EPA says that there are 4 type of water contaminants: physical, chemical, radiological, and biological. Its definition includes anything that is not an actual water molecule. That means that naturally occurring things like sediment and water weeds are considered contaminants along with things like oil and uranium. Chances are good that the type of contaminants your company needs to keep out ...

  • (x)ZnO(1 − x)Fe2O3 nanocrystallines for the removal of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) from water: kinetic and adsorption studies

    In this work the efficiency of mechanically prepared magnetic (x)ZnO(1 − x)Fe2O3 nanocrystallines for Ni(II) and Cd(II) ions removal was investigated. The produced nanoparticles were characterized using N2 adsorption, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and magnetization techniques. Batch mode experiments were performed to evaluate the parameters of the heavy metal ions adsorption on the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Process Of Making Charcoal From Straw

    Even though it can be done to utilize organic material in order to create charcoal manually, there are actually machines that could try this for you personally. Straw charcoal is a thing which is easily accessible, that lots of people can purchase from local stores, an alternative choice to using wood. These straw charcoal briquettes are generally long fit, ...


  • An optical method for characterizing carbon content in ceramic pot filters

    Ceramic pot filter (CPF) technology is a relatively common means of household water treatment in developing areas, and performance characteristics of CPFs have been characterized using production CPFs, experimental CPFs fabricated in research laboratories, and ceramic disks intended to be CPF surrogates. There is evidence that CPF manufacturers do not always fire their products according to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Solutions for Safe Drinking Water Through Biological Water Treatments

    Most people across the U.S. expect to turn on their faucets and have immediate access to clean drinking water. The truth is, it wasn’t until 1974 that Congress passed the Safe Water Drinking Act with the goal of regulating the nation’s public water supply. Over the years, the SWDA has been amended to include water sources as well, such as rivers, lakes, springs and groundwater wells ...

  • Power Station Slag Recycling - Case Study

    The problem: Coal fired power stations operating tap slag boilers release most of the ashes resulting from the combustion as slag at the boiler bottom. There is a number of such power stations in Europe operative. These boilers are also known as wet bottom boilers. There are two types of wet-bottom boilers: the slag-tap boiler and the cyclone boiler. The slag-tap boiler burns ...


    By Dirk European Holdings LTD

  • Oil Recycling - Case Study

    The problem: Waste oil recycling contributes very much to climate protection through (CO2) energy saving. Compared to the production of base oil the re-refining of waste oil uses 34 % less resources. In the sixties the German government was subsidising the re-refining of waste oil. Because of that the use of waste oil as a fuel was neglected. The used oil re-refining is the ...


    By Dirk European Holdings LTD

  • A solution to fracturing water supply and disposal issues

    “Water, water, everywhere, Nor any drop to drink.” –The Rime of the Ancient Mariner, Samuel Taylor Coleridge Many topics of conversation among oil and gas industry professionals are predictable – oil price trends, the “great shift change” imperiling the available workforce, and production quotas and caps from OPEC. Yet one pressing topic among those developing ...


    By Fairmount Santrol

  • Culture-independent methods reveal high diversity of OXA-48-like genes in water environments

    The carbapenemase OXA-48 was identified for the first time in 2001 and is now one of the greatest concerns in terms of antibiotic resistance. While many studies report clinical OXA-48-like producers, few reports refer blaOXA-48-like genes in environmental bacteria. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the diversity of blaOXA-48-like genes in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Using business models in designing market-based solutions: the case of fluoride treatment systems

    This paper addresses how business models inform viability of different fluoride treatment technologies for developing countries as well as the pursuit of financial and operational sustainability. Excess fluoride concentrations in drinking water supplies negatively impact the health of communities living in fluoride affected regions of the world by causing dental and skeletal fluorosis and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Climate change is more than a tech problem, so we need more than a tech solution

    At the COP 21 climate convention in Paris at the end of 2015, leaders from 194 nations agreed to pursue actions that will cut greenhouse gas emissions enough to keep global warming within 1.5 °C (2.7 °F) above pre-industrial conditions. Meeting this goal will avoid continued and increasing harm to people and ecosystems around the world caused by a changing climate, and it is also a great ...


    By Ensia

  • Kollidon® 30 as a suitable encapsulant for nano spray drying processes in water and organic solvent

    In order to improve the dissolution property of poorly water-soluble drugs, solid dispersion methods have been used and described in the recent years such as fusion, solvent evaporation or spray drying. Kollidon® 30 is a polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer soluble in water and many organic solvents. It is used as excipient in the pharmaceutical industry for the microencapsulation of drugs. It is ...


    By BÜCHI Labortechnik AG

  • Water, energy, and food nexus: review of global implementation and simulation model development

    Water, energy, and food (WEF) have complex interconnections. Water is required to produce energy, while energy is needed for water extraction, treatment, and distribution. The food sector requires water and energy to produce food products, while fertilizer and pesticide from farmland have a negative impact on water quality; however, biomass is a potential alternative energy source. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The design and build of a process and wastewater treatment plant - Wastewater inlet COD: 3000 mg/l - Case Study

    The client Our Client has been on the market since about 50 years and is one of the most important protagonists of the Italian dairy industry. The business of this Group consists of 4 main areas: milk and cream, yogurt, cheese and “diversification”, which includes industrial gastronomic specialities, eggs and desserts. Milk still remains his primary activity, even if, with the ...


    By IDRAFLOT

  • Qualitative comparative analysis for WASH research and practice

    Qualitative comparative analysis is an established research method that has been underutilized in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) research. It has immense potential for addressing the complexity inherent to WASH projects, and can produce robust and transparent results from intermediate or large numbers of cases. The method enables researchers and practitioners to blend quantitative and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • LED Applications for Oil and Gas Refining and Processing

    Oil and gas processing facilities are unsafe due to the existence of hazardous compounds during operations. When addressing such issues, companies in the sector may deploy explosion proof lighting systems to prevent the ignition of sparks created from the electrical equipment. The adoption of LED technology in oil and gas refineries has helped reinforce key safety measures associated with ...


    By Larson Electronics LLC

Need help finding the right suppliers? Try XPRT Sourcing. Let the XPRTs do the work for you