Wastewater Evaporation Articles

  • Comparison of evaporation rate on open water bodies: energy balance estimate versus measured pan

    Much attention has been paid to establish accurately open water evaporation since the lake itself is the largest consumer of water. The aim of this study is to assess the discrepancy in the measured (pan evaporation) and estimated (Penman) evaporation rate, seasonally, based on the results from a 37-year energy budget analysis of Lake Burrumbeet, Australia. The detailed analysis of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A cost model with several hydraulic constraints for optimizing in practice a trapezoidal cross section

    Open channel structures are essential to infrastructure networks and expensive to manufacture. Optimizing the design of channel structures can reduce the total cost of a channel's length, including costs of lining, earthwork, and water lost through seepage and evaporation. The present research aims to present various optimization models towards the design of trapezoidal channel cross section. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hg removal and the effects of coexisting metals in forward osmosis and membrane distillation

    In this study, we investigate the rejection of Hg, Cd, and Pb and the effect of coexisting metals on Hg removal through forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) in order to establish a more effective water treatment process. The results of our laboratory experiment indicate that more than 97% of the rejection for each metal is achieved through the FO system, and this rejection is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Seawater desalination with solar-energy-integrated vacuum membrane distillation system

    This study designed and tested a novel type of solar-energy-integrated vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) system for seawater desalination under actual environmental conditions in Wuhan, China. The system consists of eight parts: a seawater tank, solar collector, solar cooker, inclined VMD evaporator, circulating water vacuum pump, heat exchanger, fresh water tank, and brine tank. Natural ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Thermodynamic modelling of a membrane distillation crystallisation process for the treatment of mining wastewater

    Membrane distillation (MD) could be applicable in zero liquid discharge applications. This is due to the fact that MD is applicable at high salinity ranges which are generally outside the scope of reverse osmosis (RO) applications, although this requires proper management of precipitating salts to avoid membrane fouling. One way of managing these salts is with MD crystallisation (MDC). This ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Fouling and long-term durability of an integrated forward osmosis and membrane distillation system

    An integrated forward osmosis (FO) and membrane distillation (MD) system has great potential for sustainable wastewater reuse. However, the fouling and long-term durability of the system remains largely unknown. This study investigates the fouling behaviour and efficiency of cleaning procedures of FO and MD membranes used for treating domestic wastewater. Results showed that a significant ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Energy evaluation and treatment efficiency of vacuum membrane distillation for brackish water desalination

    Strict environmental regulations have led to the rapid development of membrane separation technologies for the production of potable water, for industrial water supply, and for the reuse and discharge of treated wastewater. Promotion of water recycling and the provision of potable water from brackish water prevent significant negative effects on the environment and drinking water supplies. This ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Recycling of coal seam gas-associated water using vacuum membrane distillation

    Coal seam gas-associated water (CSGAW), which is a by-product of coal seam gas (CSG) production typically contains significant amounts of salts and has potential environmental issues. In this study, we optimized a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process with flat-sheet hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the treatment of synthetic CSGAW (conductivity = 15 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Brackish water treatment for reuse using vacuum membrane distillation process

    The availability of fresh water is vital for all human activities and in particular for improving living conditions, health and overall well-being. Pressure on scarce fresh water resources can be reduced by treating and reusing brackish water by advanced membrane treatment technologies. In this study, brackish water originating from effluent discharge of a local coal mine, seawater, groundwater ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Numerical simulation and field test study of desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment through flue gas

    Aimed at cost saving and pollution reduction, a novel desulfurization wastewater evaporation treatment system (DWETS) for handling wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) wastewater of a coal-fired power plant was studied. The system's advantages include simple process, and less investment and space. The feasibility of this system has been proven and the appropriate position and number of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water reclamation from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid using a novel forward osmosis–vacuum membrane distillation hybrid system

    This study examined the performance of a novel hybrid system of forward osmosis (FO) combined with vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) for reclaiming water from shale gas drilling flow-back fluid (SGDF). In the hybrid FO-VMD system, water permeated through the FO membrane into a draw solution reservoir, and the VMD process was used for draw solute recovery and clean water production. Using a SGDF ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Recovery of water and acid from leach solutions using direct contact membrane distillation

    This paper describes for the first time the use of direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) for acid and water recovery from a real leach solution generated by a hydrometallurgical plant. The leach solutions considered contained H2SO4 or HCl. In all tests the temperature of the feed solution was kept at 60 °C. The test work showed that fluxes were within the range of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - Wastewater from drugs production

    The Client In the heart of Germany, the local branch of a pharmaceutical multinational company produces an anaesthetic containing 2,6-Diisopropilphenol (Active Ingredient A), and an antiviral (Active Ingredient B) made up of sodium chloride, citric acid and sodium acid phosphate. Traces of these products are present in the wastewater coming from the cleaning process of the ...


    By EVALED-Evaporator

  • Potential of membrane distillation – a comprehensive review

    Membrane distillation (MD) is a recent and unique separation technology, in use in the process industry. The process of separation in MD involves the simultaneous heat and mass transfer through a hydrophobic semi permeable membrane, using thermal energy. Consequently a separation of the feed solution into two components – the permeate or product and the retentate or the return stream occurs. MD ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Modelling and optimisation of a water–ethanol distillation column based on exergoeconomic analysis

    Exergoeconomic modelling and optimisation of a water–ethanol distillation column is performed. A model based on energy and exergy analysis is presented here. An economic model of the system is developed according to the Total Revenue Requirement (TRR) method. The objective functions based on the exergoeconomic analysis are developed. The column that includes two main decision variables is ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Water Cycle

    The sun, which drives the water cycle, heats water in oceans and seas. Water evaporates as water vapor into the air. Ice and snow can sublimate directly into water vapor. Evapotranspiration is water transpired from plants and evaporated from the soil. Rising air currents take the vapor up into the atmosphere where cooler temperatures cause it to condense into clouds. Air currents move water vapor ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Performance evaluation of ePTFE and PVDF flat-sheet module direct contact membrane distillation

    This paper reports experiments using a flat-sheet module with 0.18 ∼ 0.45 μm ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and PVDF (polyvinylidene fluoride) membranes to show the effects of membrane properties, salt concentration and fluid hydrodynamics on the permeate flux and salt rejection of DCMD (direct contact membrane distillation). A theoretical prediction of the permeate flux was carried ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Enhancement of the performance of the vapour compression plant

    The objective of the present work is to study the performance of ejector vapour compression desalination plant with water spray on horizontal tube bundles. The effects of the operating conditions and the ejector geometry on the total distilled collected water are studied. The amount of evaporation rate due the flash evaporation is calculated by applying the mass and energy of the sprayed water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Fluoride removal from brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for fluoride removal from brackish groundwater is presented. The self-prepared polyvinylidene fluoride membrane exhibited high rejection of inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 35.6 kgm−2 h−1 was obtained. The feed concentration had no marked impact on the permeate flux and the rejection of fluoride. The precipitation of CaCO3 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Desalination of brackish groundwater by direct contact membrane distillation

    The direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) applied for desalination of brackish groundwater with self-made polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membranes was presented in the paper. The PVDF membrane exhibited high rejection of non-volatile inorganic salt solutes and a maximum permeate flux 24.5 kg m−2 h−1 was obtained with feed temperature at 70°C. The DCMD experimental results indicated that the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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