Water Conditioning Articles

  • Robotic Speed Demon Delivers 18,000 Feet Of Pipeline Condition Data In A Single Day

    "We absolutely crushed our previous distance covered in a single day..." A growing number of proactive municipal utilities and power generating operators across North America are reaping the benefits of deploying the latest robotics crawler from Pure Technologies (Pure) to assess the condition of their pipeline networks and save millions of dollars in water loss and prevented breaks. Unlike ...


    By Pure Technologies

  • No Silver Bullet Technology For Pipeline Condition Assessment

    For utilities with large-diameter networks, waiting for failures to occur before repairing or replacing highly critical mains is not an option. With a large amount of buried water infrastructure reaching the end of its service life, operators have every incentive to take a proactive approach to asset management. Nowhere is this more critical than in busy urban centres. The fallout from an ...


    By Pure Technologies

  • Numerical modelling of air-water flows in sewer drops

    The presence of dissolved oxygen (DO) in water flows is an important factor to ensure the aerobic conditions recognised as beneficial to preventing the occurrence of detrimental effects. The incorporation of DO in wastewater flowing in sewer systems is a process widely investigated in order to quantify the effect of continuous reaeration through the air-liquid interface or air entrained due to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Get More Out of Water Resources Engineering Models

    by Venu Kandiah, PhD, P.E. Senior Water Resources Engineer The effort required to develop water resources engineering models can be significant. But once developed, in many instances the models are only evaluated for a limited, or a single set of conditions. The results and predictions obtained from these evaluations are the ones used in design, presented in reports and ...


    By XP Solutions

  • A combined reed bed/freezing bed technology for septage treatment and reuse in cold climate regions

    A combined reed bed-freezing bed (RB-FB) technology was effective at treating septage under Canadian climatic conditions over a 5-year period with average loading rates of 82–104 kg TS/m2/y. Varying hydraulic and solid loading rates as well as the increasing sludge cake with time had little to no effect on treatment efficiency, with almost complete removal of organic matter, solids, heavy ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • With its High Pressure Pipeline Environment, Rand Water Provided A Perfect Opportunity to Test New Smartball Insertion And Extraction Equipment

    Rand Water is the largest bulk water utility in Africa and one of the largest in the world, providing bulk potable water to more than 23 million people in Gauteng, parts of Mpumalanga, the Free State and North West - an area that stretches over 31,000 square kilometres. Rand Water’s distribution network includes over 3,300 kilometres of large-diameter pipelines. In 2015 ...


    By Pure Technologies

  • Analysis of challenges and opportunities to meaningful Indigenous engagement in sustainable water and wastewater management

    Access to safe drinking water and adequate sanitation continue to be significant issues affecting Indigenous populations worldwide. The full participation of Indigenous peoples within water and wastewater policy and decision-making has been hindered by many factors, including capacity, inadequate resources and, overall, a lack of respect or formal recognition of Indigenous rights. This study ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of chlorine decay models under transient conditions in a water distribution system

    Residual chlorine concentration decreases along distribution networks because of factors such as water quality, physical properties of the pipeline, and hydraulic conditions. Hydraulic conditions are primarily governed by transient events generated by valve modulation or pumping action. We investigate the impact of transient events on the rate of chlorine decay under various flow conditions. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - Oil analysis - House Calls - Help reduce offshore equipment failures

    A new approach It is hard to think of another environment where an equipment failure could have a greater negative impact on employee safety and lost production than an offshore oil and gas production platform. Yet offshore platforms are among the world’s most difficult locations to operate and maintain equipment. In most cases, skilled people and supplies can only reach the ...


    By Spectro Scientific

  • Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures

    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tech Tip: SeaFET/SeapHOx pH Pre-conditioning

    The SeaFET/SeapHOx must condition to the deployment environment for at least 48 hours before pH data is considered reliable. The Shallow SeaFET’s external pH sensor must be powered and exposed to the deployment site’s water for 2–5 days before obtaining quality data. You will often see the external pH gradually rise until it meets the internal reference pH within ~0.05 pH after ...

  • How to achieve triple bottom line sustainability benefits on airport runway projects

    CH2M delivers best-in-class sustainable approaches for airport clients worldwide by constantly seeking opportunities to apply sustainable development and design concepts. From planning through plowing, CH2M is leading the development of the most sustainable runway projects in the U.S. Through our life-cycle approach, airport clients have experienced significant benefits such as ...


    By CH2M Hill Companies, Ltd.

  • How to Choose the Best ZLD System for Your Facility

    An industrial company that produces wastewater as a byproduct of its process will usually require some type of wastewater treatment system to help it avoid harming the environment, human health, and the facility’s process if the water is being reused. The water treatment system will also help the facility evade incurring heavy fines and possible legal action if wastewater is being ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Release of hydrogen sulfide in a sewer system under intermittent flow conditions: the Eiceira case study, in Portugal

    The presence and fate of hydrogen sulfide in wastewater systems were studied in two stretches of an intercepting sewer system located in a coastal village, in Portugal. A range of hydraulic parameters were obtained and liquid and gas phase measurements were carried out, both continuously and through intensive sampling campaigns. Upstream, where flow rates were relatively low, dissolved sulfide ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Condition assessment program continues in North Queensland

    Justification of an ongoing condition assessment program can, at times, be difficult for water utilities. However, successful inspections that deliver actionable outcomes on how to manage aging assets make this justification much easier. Certainly that was the case for Mackay Regional Council (MRC) when it engaged the services of ...


    By Pure Technologies

  • Development of a diffusive wave shallow water model with a novel stability condition and other new features

    One of the approaches to flood modelling is numerical simulation of the diffusive wave approximation of the shallow water equations. Improving these models in various aspects is still an open area of research. In this study, a new diffusive wave model with explicit time integration was developed which includes some novel features: (1) time steps are determined using a novel stability criterion ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Calibration of the 1D shallow water equations: a comparison of Monte Carlo and gradient-based optimization methods

    The calibration of parameters in complex systems usually requires a large computational effort. Moreover, it becomes harder to perform the calibration when non-linear systems underlie the physical process, and the direction to follow in order to optimize an objective function changes depending on the situation. In the context of shallow water equations (SWE), the calibration of parameters, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Method for an accelerated reproducible calcite-layering of potable water systems to validate decalcification procedures

    This article describes a method for an accelerated, controlled and reproducible build-up of limescale in potable water systems. The concept of this method is to systematically generate water with a high calcium carbonate precipitation potential (CCPP) by CO2-enrichment, hardening with CaCO3 followed by CO2-desorption. Water with a CCPP of about 100 mg/L CaCO3 led to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of relative air/water flow velocity on oxygen mass transfer in gravity sewers

    Problems related to hydrogen sulfide may be serious for both network stakeholders and the public in terms of health, sustainability of the sewer structure and urban comfort. H2S emission models are generally theoretical and simplified in terms of environmental conditions. Although air transport characteristics in sewers must play a role in the fate of hydrogen sulfide, only a limited number of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Risk management for water supply pipes

    In this paper, the risk of water supply systems as a combination of hydraulic analyses (consequence) and failure probability of pipelines based on the actual condition is discussed. On the one hand, a stepwise closing of pipelines calculates the influence on customer's supply which represents the importance of a pipe. On the other hand, based on existing failure statistics, age and material ...


    By IWA Publishing

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