Water Discharges Articles

  • Estimating discharge in rivers through the combined use of dimensionless isovels and point velocity measurements

    This paper presents a procedure for estimating discharge in a river cross-section based on the combined use of dimensionless isovels and point velocity measurements. Specifically, taking the Biot–Savart law on the magnetic field induced by an electric current in a wire as their basis as already done by other researchers, the authors propose a new formulation of the relationship characterizing ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What Is Zero Liquid Discharge and How Does It Work?

    Not every industrial facility that produces wastewater will require zero liquid discharge (ZLD). It is usually looked to as a last resort because it can be a complex process that requires a high initial investment. If a facility is located on a site that has severe water scarcity issues and/or astronomical discharge fees, it might be ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Does your facility need Zero Liquid Discharge Technology?

    If your industrial facility discharges its waste into deep wells, streams, sewers to publicly owned treatment works (POTWs), and/or other waterways, it is likely there are some types of regulations on discharging the waste. With an increasing push toward environmental protection, many industrial facilities and effluent regulators are strengthening strategies to reduce industrial process waste. ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Influences of rainfall variables and antecedent discharge on urban effluent concentrations and loads in wet weather

    For storm drainages inappropriately connected with sewage, wet weather discharge is a major factor that adversely affects receiving waters. A study of the wet weather influences of rainfall-discharge variables on storm drainages connected with sewage was conducted in the downtown Shanghai area (374 ha). Two indicators, event mean concentration (EMC) and event pollutant load per unit area ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - E.ON Power Plant Nuremberg

    Water level, water flow and discharge are monitored at two inflows of the E.ON electricity power plan Franken I, using the OTT SLD, with horizontal Doppler-flow sensors. The purpose of this measurement is to optimize the operation of the plan which partly covers the demand for electricity in the conurbation of Nuremberg-Fuerth-Erlangen.  OTT technologies for this project have been in use ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

  • Case study - Discharge measurement at the river

    Due to the seasonally strong weed growth and low flow during low water periods the measurement of water level and flow at the measurement site "Kleinraschuetz“ was rather distorted. It had to be corrected by putting in additional manpower for manual measurements. Therefore it was decided to modernize the station completely and to install a stationary discharge measuring system. The ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

  • How much will a zero liquid discharge system cost your facility?

    With increasing stewardship of environmental protection, both nationally and internationally, many industrial facilities and effluent regulators are strengthening strategies to reduce industrial process waste by implementing zero liquid discharge (ZLD), a process that limits liquid waste at the end of your industrial process to—as the term suggests—zero. A ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Modeling the impact of land use changes on river flows in Arror watershed, Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya

    Water scarcity has become a serious global problem. Therefore, there is an urgent need to understand land use changes in watershed areas and their impact on river flows. This study models the impact of land use changes on river flows in the Arror watershed in Elgeyo Marakwet County, Kenya. The primary study sources included remotely sensed and socio-economic data. Landsat 5 thematic mappers ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Groundwater discharge downstream of an arid inland river in Northwestern China

    Nalenggele River is an inland river located in the arid, fragile ecological environment area in Northwestern China. Groundwater discharge to the river can significantly impact the ecologic environment in the Nalenggele River basin, but few hydrogeological studies have been conducted in the inland arid basin. In this paper, two sections were chosen to analyze the groundwater discharge in the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Natural radionuclides in waste water discharged from coal-fired power plants in Serbia

    Investigation of the natural radioactivity levels in water around power plants, as well as in plants, coal, ash, slag and soil, and to assess the associated radiation hazard is becoming an emerging and interesting topic. This paper is focused on the results of the radioactivity analysis in waste water samples from five coal-fired power plants in Serbia (Nikola Tesla A, Nikola Tesla B, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Monitoring micropollutants in the Swist river basin

    Micropollutant pathways were studied for the Swist river basin (Western Germany). The aim was to verify the effectiveness of a monitoring approach to detect micropollutants entering the river. In a separate sewer system, water was frequently found to be contaminated with micropollutants. Improper connections of sewage canals to the stormwater network seemed to be the cause of pollution. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Wastewater treatment plant effluent as a source of microplastics: review of the fate, chemical interactions and potential risks to aquatic organisms

    Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent has been identified as a potential source of microplastics in the aquatic environment. Microplastics have recently been detected in wastewater effluent in Western Europe, Russia and the USA. As there are only a handful of studies on microplastics in wastewater, it is difficult to accurately determine the contribution of wastewater effluent as a source ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - TPH in produced sand for overboard discharge

    Customer uses TD-500D to measure TPH concentrations in produced sand on an offshore oil platform in Malaysia.  The sand contains high levels of crude oils and must be treated on-site prior to dumping it overboard.  The TD-500D was calibrated to Sitelab's TPH calibration kit, product CAL-056.  Methanol solvent was used to extract the samples.  For comparison, samples were also ...


    By Sitelab Corporation

  • Surface flows from images: ten days of observations from the Tiber River gauge-cam station

    Fully remote surface flow measurements are crucial for flow monitoring during floods and in difficult-to-access areas. Recently, optics-based surface flow monitoring has been enabled through a permanent gauge-cam station on the Tiber River, Rome, Italy. Therein, a system of lasers and an internet protocol camera equipped with two optical modules afford video acquisitions of the river surface ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A modeling study of the influences of Yangtze River and local catchment on the development of floods in Poyang Lake, China

    Poyang Lake, one of the most frequently flooded regions in China, connects with the Yangtze River and the five sub-tributaries in the local catchment. The lake's hydrological regime is complicated by a complex hydraulic connection and strong river–lake interaction, especially for the extreme hydrological regime. This study analyzes the relationships between the lake level changes and the flow ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantifying the effects of channel change on the discharge diversion of Jingjiang Three Outlets after the operation of the Three Gorges Dam

    The Jingjiang Three Outlets (JTO) are the water-sediment connecting channels between the Yangtze River and the Dongting Lake. The discharge diversion of the JTO plays a dominant role in the flood control of the middle–lower Yangtze River, Dongting Lake evolution, and ecological environment. After the operation of the Three Gorges Dam (TGD), the river channels downstream experienced dramatic ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case Study - Groundwater Discharge Permit - Plymouth, Massachusetts

    The process of obtaining a groundwater discharge permit for a subdivision scale septic absorption system was faciliated by using the advanced GIS features within EnviroInsite. Geologic features were downloaded and presented at the site scale along with the subdivision boundary and potential downgradient receptors. A cross-section was created showing the detailed soil descriptions, water levels ...


    By EI LLC

  • Sewage pollution in New York, USA: impact of the ‘Right to Know’ Act

    In 2012, New York, USA enacted the Sewage Pollution Right to Know (SPRtK) Act, which requires public notification of untreated and partially treated sewage discharges. With the passing of this law, New York joined 12 other states that have similar laws but none as comprehensive as New York's. As part of the SPRtK Act requirements, aggregated sewage discharge reports (SDRs) are made available ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The marine environment and ballast water management law

    This article contains a study of international and national measures dealing with the potential threat of pollution and the introduction of alien species that may come from the discharge of improperly treated ballast water. Ballast water management policy, law and coastal biosecurity strategies are considered. There are challenges to achieving the ideals of ballast water laws, as correctly ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reuse of effluent discharged from tannery wastewater treatment plants by powdered activated carbon and ultrafiltration combined reverse osmosis system

    We evaluate the applicability of a reverse osmosis (RO) system that combines powdered activated carbon (PAC) and ultrafiltration (UF) to treat the effluent discharged from tannery wastewater treatment plants. Conventional treatment processes such as neutralization, clariflocculation, and biological processes are used to clean the effluent before feeding to the PAC and UF combined RO system. ...


    By IWA Publishing

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