oil-in-water event Articles

  • An agent-based modeling framework for sociotechnical simulation of water distribution contamination events

    In the event that a contaminant is introduced to a water distribution network, a large population of consumers may risk exposure. Selecting mitigation actions to protect public health may be difficult, as contamination is a poorly predictable dynamic event. Consumers who become aware of an event may select protective actions to change their water demands from typical demand patterns, and new ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimal sensor placement for event detection and source identification in water distribution networks

    This study focuses on the optimization of sensor placement with respect to the source identification and event detection. A multi-objective algorithm is used to solve the optimization problem. The numbers of possible source nodes for contamination events associated with the solutions on the Pareto fronts from the proposed method and benchmark method are calculated under the same configuration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Molecular techniques and data integration: investigating distribution system coliform events

    A retrospective analysis of coliform events in a drinking water distribution system was conducted. A total of 13 coliform isolates with specific geographic/sampling records were analysed using microbial source tracking (MST) to establish genetic (based on DNA) and phenotypic (based on substrate utilization) relatedness between isolates, and a data integration approach (geo-spatial and event ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Virus contamination from operation and maintenance events in small drinking water distribution systems

    We tested the association of common events in drinking water distribution systems with contamination of household tap water with human enteric viruses. Viruses were enumerated by qPCR in the tap water of 14 municipal systems that use non-disinfected groundwater. Ultraviolet disinfection was installed at all active wellheads to reduce virus contributions from groundwater to the distribution ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Data analytics methodology for monitoring quality sensors and events in the Barcelona drinking water network

    Water quality management is a key area to guarantee drinking water safety to users. This task is based on disinfection techniques, such as chlorination, applied to the drinking water network to prevent the growth of microorganisms present in the water. The continuous monitoring of water quality parameters is fundamental to assess the sanitary conditions of the drinking water and to detect ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of two multivariate classification models for contamination event detection in water quality time series

    This paper explores two applied classification models alerting for contamination events in water distribution systems. The models perform multivariate analysis of water quality online measurements for event detection. The developed models comprise an outlier detection algorithm and a following sequence analysis for the classification of events. The first model is an unsupervised minimum volume ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Distribution System Security Monitoring

    A water security instrument essentially needs to be able to detect potential contaminants in drinking water. Since a significant number of potential chemical contaminants are organic in nature, a water security monitoring instrument that can detect organic matter in water is perfect for this application. Real Tech has developed an instrument specifically designed for water security ...


    By Real Tech Inc.

  • Cascade vulnerability for risk analysis of water infrastructure

    One of the major tasks in urban water management is failure-free operation for at least most of the time. Accordingly, the reliability of the network systems in urban water management has a crucial role. The failure of a component in these systems impacts potable water distribution and urban drainage. Therefore, water distribution and urban drainage systems are categorized as critical ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Need for a Total View of Water Networks

    The water industry is not short of software offerings, and so the arguments in favour of yet another software program had better be very good indeed. In this article we examine how one very significant community of users – operations managers, engineers and planners - have largely had their specific needs overlooked; we identify the type of system needed to fulfil their requirements and the ...


    By Innovyze

  • Water for Southern California: water resources development at the close of the century.

    INTRODUCTION In 1999, California observes the 150th year of the Gold Rush. Rather than an isolated historical event, it could be argued that the California Gold Rush never really ended, but rather that it was the first chapter in a mass migration unlike any other in history, both in scale and duration. At the founding of the Missions by Franciscan friars, Alta California was almost an ...


    By Hargis + Associates Inc

  • Case Study: Wheeling Water Department, West Virginia

    Wheeling Water Department in Wheeling, West Virginia, is an independent, municipally owned water utility, serving a population of approximately 50,000 people, including all of Ohio County. Consisting of three divisions, Wheeling Water is responsible for all treatment and testing of the source, finished water and for pumping it to the customers. The utility treats approximately 7.5 million gallons ...


    By AllMax Software, Inc.

  • Framework for water quality monitoring system in water distribution networks based on vulnerability and population sensitivity risks

    Delivering water in sufficient quantity and acceptable quality is the main objective of water distribution networks (WDN) and at the same time is the main challenge. Many factors affect the delivery of water through distribution networks. Some of these factors are relevant to water quality, quantity and the condition of the infrastructure itself. The deterioration of water quality in the WDN ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water business in China through the eyes of an entrepreneur

    ‘China has grown at an incredible pace for 30-odd years, but at the cost of the environment,’ comments Dutch entrepreneur Gijs de Bruin. The government is of course aware of this and the risk it poses to future economic growth, and it is the reason for the heavy on-going investment in environmental actions, including the water sector. ‘Water is one of the sectors in ...


    By Aquatech Global Events

  • Modeling water supply networks in New Zealand

    Untitled Document Introduction ...


    By Innovyze

  • Algorithmic network monitoring for a modern water utility: a case study in Jerusalem

    We report on the design, deployment, and use of TaKaDu, a real-time algorithmic Water Infrastructure Monitoring solution, with a strong focus on water loss reduction and control. TaKaDu is provided as a commercial service to several customers worldwide. It has been in use at HaGihon, the Jerusalem utility, since mid 2009. Water utilities collect considerable real-time data from their networks, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Diminishing marginal returns for sensor networks in a water distribution system

    With increasing interest in the implementation/functionality of a contaminant warning system for water distribution systems, questions exist over the application to a real distribution system. A methodology is described to assess the impacts of changes in the numbers of sensors, on the time delay required to detect a contaminant intrusion event and to maximize sensor detection redundancy as ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Influence of porous media on intrusion rate into water distribution pipes

    Untreated water can intrude into water distribution systems through pipe leaks and cracks when negative pressure events occur inside drinking water pipelines. The orifice equation is typically used for calculation of intrusion flow rate, which ignores the impact of the soil surrounding the pipeline. This paper presents the results of an experimental study on the effect of porous ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Logistic regression analysis to estimate contaminant sources in water distribution systems

    Accidental or intentional contamination in a water distribution system (WDS) has recently attracted attention due to the potential hazard to public health and the complexity of the contaminant characteristics. The accurate and rapid characterization of contaminant sources is necessary to successfully mitigate the threat in the event of contamination. The uncertainty surrounding the contaminants, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of machine learning techniques to predict anomalies in water supply networks

    Methods to improve the operational efficiency of a water supply network by early detection of anomalies are investigated by making use of the data streams from multiple sensor locations within the network. The water supply network is a demonstration site of Vitens, a Dutch water company that has several district metering areas where flow, pressure, electrical conductance and temperature are ...


    By IWA Publishing

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