water distribution network Articles

  • The Effects of Intermittent Supply on Water Distribution Networks

    The world’s population is increasing at a tremendous rate, the world’s renewable water resources are reducing rapidly, the gap between supply and demand is widening with urbanisation and climate change making it even wider. This paper reviews how the Water Board of Lemesos, Cyprus, a water utility with a proven history of managing extremely well its distribution network, was forced ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network simulation by optimization approaches

    When a fire-flow condition occurs and a nodal demand is excessive or when a pipe breaks, a water distribution system (WDS) may temporarily become deficient and unable to satisfy all nodal demands. Thus, estimation of the influences of failure conditions on the network is needed. A method for analyzing the hydraulic condition of the network in such a situation is proposed. The method, which is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Multi-objective optimisation of the operation of a water distribution network

    The aim of the present paper was to move water through a reservoir network in such a way as to meet consumer demands and level constraints, minimise the cost of electricity, and minimise the loss of chlorine. This was to be achieved by choosing the switching intervals of reservoir inlet pumps and valves, at the same time complying with the allowed minimum interval size of each device. Switching ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Division method for water distribution networks in hilly areas

    Water distribution systems in hilly areas are always divided into several zones due to the undulating terrain. The present approach of dividing water distribution systems lacks an assessment index and is characterized by a low degree of automation. With the building of a mathematical model, this paper introduces two indicators – pressure limitation and pressure variation – to enable the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessment of metrics for resilient design of water distribution networks

    Water distribution networks (WDNs) play a crucial role in the well-being of human populations and economic prosperity. It is essential that they cope with abnormal operating conditions and recover functionality quickly. Traditionally, WDNs are designed using cost and reliability objectives, but there is a lack of consensus on the definition and quantification of reliability which typically is a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology

    This paper presents a novel concept of adaptive water distribution networks with dynamically reconfigurable topology for optimal pressure control, leakage management and improved system resilience. The implementation of District Meter Areas (DMAs) has greatly assisted water utilities in reducing leakage. DMAs segregate water networks into small areas, the flow in and out of each area is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Analysis of flushing-path effects in water-distribution networks

    The unidirectional and conventional flushing methods are compared in this study and the water amount and flow velocity at junctions within an EPANET water distribution network are compared. In the unidirectional method, the necessary flow and water pressure for the minimum flow velocity for flushing become greater when pipe diameter exceeds a certain value. Therefore, the maximum length of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New indices for reliability assessment of water distribution networks

    This paper presents new indices to evaluate the reliability of water distribution networks (WDNs) usable in the design, planning and management of these networks. Since the pressure-driven analysis (PDA) of WDNs produces more accurate results than the demand-driven analysis, the new indices are proposed based on the PDA. In the proposed measures, nodal pressures, nodal available discharges and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Spatial network generation tool for water distribution network design and performance analysis

    The research presented in this paper aims at the support tool for generation of multiple networks with preset or randomised properties. To explore particular phenomena, water distribution analysis may require a coherent set of cases. Readily available in the literature are simple synthetic networks used for benchmarking, either real-life cases that are too diverse in size and configuration. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Topological clustering as a tool for planning water quality monitoring in water distribution networks

    Topological clustering was explored as a tool for water supply utilities in preparation of monitoring and contamination contingency plans. A complex water distribution network model of Copenhagen, Denmark, was simplified by topological clustering into recognizable water movement patterns to: (1) identify steady clusters for a part of the network where an actual contamination has occurred; (2) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Life-cycle assessment of common water main materials in water distribution networks

    This paper examines the economy-wide environmental impacts linked to the manufacturing of PVC and ductile iron (DI) pipes, steel tanks, and to the generation of electricity for pumping in water distribution network optimization. The non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II) is used to generate Pareto-optimal solutions of the benchmark ‘Anytown’ network expansion problem. Selected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quantifying the economy of flow distribution in water supply looped networks

    Optimization of water supply looped networks has attracted a great deal of attention from researchers for more than 30 years. As the classical water supply looped network optimization problem is mathematically non-convex and multimodal, the resulting solution of most approaches is uncertain in the sense of how close it is to the “best” solution. In many cases, this “best” or “global” solution is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of statistical sampling for the assessment of residential consumption totals in water distribution networks

    The paper provides insights into stratified sampling, a standard statistical technique that may be employed to assess domestic water use in water distribution networks. The basic idea is to use only a few meters to provide inference on the total water consumption of a network or of a district metered area through the knowledge of some additional stratification variables, such as household ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Stochastic simulation methodology for resilience assessment of water distribution networks

    Water distribution systems enable social and economic development and sustain people quality of life. However, these systems face significant performance challenges including ageing, natural disruptive events, and man–made disruptions. Physical protection of networked infrastructure distributed over large geographical areas is unfeasible. A cost–effective alternative is to enhance the water ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Pumps as turbines (PATs) in water distribution networks affected by intermittent service

    A hydraulic model was developed in order to evaluate the potential energy recovery from the use of centrifugal pumps as turbines (PATs) in a water distribution network characterized by the presence of private tanks. The model integrates the Global Gradient Algorithm (GGA), with a pressure-driven model that permits a more realistic representation of the influence on the network behaviour of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Prediction of water and wastewater networks rehabilitation based current age and material distribution

    Ageing drinking water, stormwater and sewer pipe networks imply an increased degree of rehabilitation. The need for rehabilitation can be predicted using lifetime distribution functions together with current network age and material distribution. In Sweden, current age and material distribution is neither documented on a national level, nor for many water utilities on a local level. In this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Speeding up the water distribution network design optimization using the ΔQ method

    To optimize the design of a water distribution network (WDN), a large number of possible solutions need to be examined; hence computation efficiency is an important issue. To accelerate the computation, one can use more powerful computers, parallel computing systems with adapted hydraulic solvers, hybrid algorithms, more efficient hydraulic methods or any combination of these techniques. This ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water distribution network sectorisation using graph theory and many-objective optimisation

    The water distribution network (WDN) sectorisation problem is characterised by structural and hydraulic requirements that make existing graph partitioning techniques inadequate to find a good solution. Specifically, sector isolation and direct access to at least one source for each sector are not addressed. This study proposes a method to address structural requirements of water network ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Detecting anomalies in water distribution networks using EPR modelling paradigm

    Sustainable management of water distribution networks (WDNs) requires effective exploitation of available data from pressure/flow devices. Water companies collect a large amount of such data, which need to be managed correctly and analysed effectively using appropriate techniques. Furthermore, water companies need to balance the data gathering and handling costs with the benefits of extracting ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A review of sensor placement objective metrics for contamination detection in water distribution networks

    Security of water distribution networks (WDNs) through early warning systems is one of the topics of research over the last two decades to safeguard human health and the environment against accidental and intentional contamination. Several methodologies have been suggested by different researchers for placement of sensors in WDNs which can provide early warning. Owing to the cost of both ...


    By IWA Publishing

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