Water Flow Articles

  • Thurston County comments on Greyline Area-Velocity Flowmeters - Case Study

    We have been using Greyline products at Thurston County, Washington for approximately seven years. We use both the Stingray portable flow meters and the permanent Area Velocity Flow Meter (AVFM II) in multiple stormwater applications. We have used these meters to measure stormwater flows to help our design engineers develop flow capacity for stormwater projects. We have deployed the Stingrays at ...


    By Greyline Instruments Inc.

  • Organic matter capture by a high-rate inoculum-chemostat and MBBR system

    The main objective of this study was to develop an innovative process to maximize the bio-transformation of colloidal and soluble biodegradable matter (CSB) into particulate matter (XB) for energy recovery via methane production. Two configurations were studied: (1) high-rate moving bed bioreactor (HR-MBBR) and (2) inoculum-chemostat (IC) system consisting of a very HR-MBBR inoculating a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Building Box Culverts with Articulated Cable Concrete Block Systems

    When you need to manage the flow of water in an area with streams, heavy rainfall or otherwise consistently wet conditions, the box culvert stands the test of time. Box culverts have been around for many years for a good reason: they can be excellent tools for directing and controlling water so it doesn’t cause erosion and interfere with roads, trails or other manmade structures that need ...

  • Determination of Flow Rates in part-filled Applications using the Radar Method

    Introduction The radar measurement method plays an increasingly important role in the water and wastewater field. This is particularly reflected by the "Metering outside of the medium" trend. Flow measurement using radar which enables contactless measurements thus becomes a major focal point. It features a wide range of applications and hence is useful as permanent measurement system for ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • TurbEx® COOLING TOWER - Case Study

    This article is about the case study of the TurbeEx® Cooling Tower in operation at a Huhtamaki U.S. pulp & paper facility. Commissioned in late Spring 2016 this TurbEx® COOLING TOWER cools process water at a Huhtamaki U.S. pulp & paper facility using TurboScrubber® fluidized packing to ensure continuous non-clogging operation even with sticky pulp & solids ...

  • Patoka Lake Plant upgrade requires new control valves

    Patoka Lake Regional Water & Sewer District (PLRWSD) serves 11 counties in southern Indiana with a population of around 130,000. The distribution of water travels through approximately 850 miles of pipe ranging in size from sizes 3 to 30 inches and includes numerous elevated towers or ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • Quadratic head loss approximations for optimisation problems in water supply networks

    This paper presents a novel analysis of the accuracy of quadratic approximations for the Hazen–Williams (HW) head loss formula, which enables the control of constraint violations in optimisation problems for water supply networks. The two smooth polynomial approximations considered here minimise the absolute and relative errors, respectively, from the original non-smooth HW head loss function ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Clean water is a basic human right, and we can and should make it affordable to everyone

    Ask someone in Flint, Michigan, or São Paolo, Brazil — the list of cities rocked by water disasters seems to grow each day — how much safe water is worth. Worried about contamination and drought, it might be a pretty penny. But the ability of people to actually pay for the full cost of water — from ...


    By Ensia

  • GoRoSoBo: an overall control diagram to improve the efficiency of water transport systems in real time

    Agriculture plays an important part in the food chain and water resources for agriculture are essential. A problem is that the water transport systems present low efficiencies in practice. Crop yields must be optimized, and the goal of an operational water manager is to deliver water to irrigation sites accurately and efficiently. In order to fulfill this objective, we propose a centralized ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Aeration System Upgrade Increases Flow Capacity and Reclaimed Water Availability

    Read the full Case Study: Replacing Brush Rotors with Aire-O2 Tritons® Increases Flow Capacity and Reclaimed Water Availability Overview: In 2012, ...

  • Seasonal variation of microbial community for the treatment of tail water in constructed wetland

    Effects of seasons and hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on the treatment performance and the response of the microbial community of vertical flow constructed wetland treating tail water were investigated. The seasonal treatment performance was evaluated at four HLR of 125, 250, 375 and 500 mm/d, respectively. The microbial community was detected by MiSeq Illumina platform at HLR 125 and 375 mm/d. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures

    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of surface maintenance on BioSand filter performance and flow

    The BioSand filter (BSF) is a household scaled, intermittently operated, slow sand filter. The BSF requires maintenance to remove trapped sediments. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance on the filter's flow rate and performance. Four concrete BSFs received three styles of maintenance: surface agitation (SA), stirring method (SM), and sand removal (SR). Effluent water was collected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automatic control valves: how to assess ACV applications

    As automation and computers claimed a foothold in the operation and control of reservoirs and elevated water tanks, the industry moved the valve control from mechanical automatic control valves (ACV) to actuated butterfly and ball valves. The primary reason? Actuators can be controlled by SCADA systems, which have been almost ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • A comparison of three dual drainage models: shallow water vs local inertial vs diffusive wave

    In this study we compared three overland flow models, a full dynamic model (shallow water equation), a local inertial equations model (gravity wave model), and a diffusive wave model (parallel diffusive wave model). The three models are coupled with the same full dynamic sewer network model (SIPSON). We adopted the volume exchange between sewer and overland flow models, and the hydraulic head ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Flow Rate Measurement in Full Pipes Using the Transit Time Method

    Particularly in large diameters the relevance of water volume measurement is growing. The challenge with cooling water or fresh water processes is to generate accurate flow recordings or to document and to control individual consumptions and withdrawal quantities. Flow detection, however, particularly in large diameters is highly demanding. In such cases the transit time measurement thanks to its ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • Cold Rolling Mill - Emulsified Oily Water - Case Study

    Introduction Clean Water Technology, Inc. (CWT), the creator of the Gas Energy Mixing (GEM), System provides the most advanced primary treatment system on the market. The GEM System offers superior reduction of total suspended solids (TSS), biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD), oils and grease (FOG) and turbidity. With the ability to break oily wastewaters and float ...


    By Clean Water Technology, Inc.

  • Wet weather flow management

    For years, population explosion, demographic shifts, urbanization, aging infrastructure, limited water resources, and economic development have driven our water market, and with that our world’s need for total water solutions. ...


    By CH2M Hill Companies, Ltd.

  • Nitrate removal from natural water by coupling adsorption and Donnan dialysis

    A hybrid adsorption/Donnan dialysis (DD) process for nitrate removal using PUROLITE A520E resin as an adsorbent was investigated in this work. PUROLITE resin was introduced into the DD process due to its good selectivity adsorption for nitrate and widespread availability. This study was conducted in order to benefit from each process, and it was an original and new combination. The retention ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • White Paper: Cyclical Aeration Control- Combining Aerobic & Anoxic Conditions in One Basin

    Increase Water Quality with Cyclical Aeration With increased effluent pollution restrictions on municipal wastewater treatment plants, cities are pressed to find ways to economically increase their effluent quality with little to no funding. Many new NPDES permits ...

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