Water Flow Articles

  • Determination of Flow Rates in part-filled Applications using the Radar Method

    Introduction The radar measurement method plays an increasingly important role in the water and wastewater field. This is particularly reflected by the "Metering outside of the medium" trend. Flow measurement using radar which enables contactless measurements thus becomes a major focal point. It features a wide range of applications and hence is useful as permanent measurement system for ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • TurbEx® COOLING TOWER - Case Study

    This article is about the case study of the TurbeEx® Cooling Tower in operation at a Huhtamaki U.S. pulp & paper facility. Commissioned in late Spring 2016 this TurbEx® COOLING TOWER cools process water at a Huhtamaki U.S. pulp & paper facility using TurboScrubber® fluidized packing to ensure continuous non-clogging operation even with sticky pulp & solids ...

  • Patoka Lake Plant upgrade requires new control valves

    Patoka Lake Regional Water & Sewer District (PLRWSD) serves 11 counties in southern Indiana with a population of around 130,000. The distribution of water travels through approximately 850 miles of pipe ranging in size from sizes 3 to 30 inches and includes numerous elevated towers or ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • Clean water is a basic human right, and we can and should make it affordable to everyone

    Ask someone in Flint, Michigan, or São Paolo, Brazil — the list of cities rocked by water disasters seems to grow each day — how much safe water is worth. Worried about contamination and drought, it might be a pretty penny. But the ability of people to actually pay for the full cost of water — from ...


    By Ensia

  • Control Algae and Improve the Water Quality in Waste Stabilization Ponds

    Due to population growth, accelerated urbanisation and economic development, the quantity of waste water generated is increasing globally. Mainly in low-income areas, a large proportion of the waste water is discharged directly in the environment. When the waste water is treated, the treatment plants may not remove certain pollutants that can have a negative impact on the people and ecosystem. ...


    By LG Sonic

  • GoRoSoBo: an overall control diagram to improve the efficiency of water transport systems in real time

    Agriculture plays an important part in the food chain and water resources for agriculture are essential. A problem is that the water transport systems present low efficiencies in practice. Crop yields must be optimized, and the goal of an operational water manager is to deliver water to irrigation sites accurately and efficiently. In order to fulfill this objective, we propose a centralized ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Aeration System Upgrade Increases Flow Capacity and Reclaimed Water Availability

    Read the full Case Study: Replacing Brush Rotors with Aire-O2 Tritons® Increases Flow Capacity and Reclaimed Water Availability Overview: In 2012, ...

  • Seasonal variation of microbial community for the treatment of tail water in constructed wetland

    Effects of seasons and hydraulic loading rates (HLR) on the treatment performance and the response of the microbial community of vertical flow constructed wetland treating tail water were investigated. The seasonal treatment performance was evaluated at four HLR of 125, 250, 375 and 500 mm/d, respectively. The microbial community was detected by MiSeq Illumina platform at HLR 125 and 375 mm/d. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures

    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Impact of surface maintenance on BioSand filter performance and flow

    The BioSand filter (BSF) is a household scaled, intermittently operated, slow sand filter. The BSF requires maintenance to remove trapped sediments. This study evaluated the effects of maintenance on the filter's flow rate and performance. Four concrete BSFs received three styles of maintenance: surface agitation (SA), stirring method (SM), and sand removal (SR). Effluent water was collected ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Automatic control valves: how to assess ACV applications

    As automation and computers claimed a foothold in the operation and control of reservoirs and elevated water tanks, the industry moved the valve control from mechanical automatic control valves (ACV) to actuated butterfly and ball valves. The primary reason? Actuators can be controlled by SCADA systems, which have been almost ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • A comparison of three dual drainage models: shallow water vs local inertial vs diffusive wave

    In this study we compared three overland flow models, a full dynamic model (shallow water equation), a local inertial equations model (gravity wave model), and a diffusive wave model (parallel diffusive wave model). The three models are coupled with the same full dynamic sewer network model (SIPSON). We adopted the volume exchange between sewer and overland flow models, and the hydraulic head ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Flow Rate Measurement in Full Pipes Using the Transit Time Method

    Particularly in large diameters the relevance of water volume measurement is growing. The challenge with cooling water or fresh water processes is to generate accurate flow recordings or to document and to control individual consumptions and withdrawal quantities. Flow detection, however, particularly in large diameters is highly demanding. In such cases the transit time measurement thanks to its ...


    By NIVUS GmbH

  • Cold Rolling Mill - Emulsified Oily Water - Case Study

    Introduction Clean Water Technology, Inc. (CWT), the creator of the Gas Energy Mixing (GEM), System provides the most advanced primary treatment system on the market. The GEM System offers superior reduction of total suspended solids (TSS), biological and chemical oxygen demand (BOD/COD), oils and grease (FOG) and turbidity. With the ability to break oily wastewaters and float ...


    By Clean Water Technology, Inc.

  • Wet weather flow management

    For years, population explosion, demographic shifts, urbanization, aging infrastructure, limited water resources, and economic development have driven our water market, and with that our world’s need for total water solutions. ...


    By CH2M Hill Companies, Ltd.

  • Nitrate removal from natural water by coupling adsorption and Donnan dialysis

    A hybrid adsorption/Donnan dialysis (DD) process for nitrate removal using PUROLITE A520E resin as an adsorbent was investigated in this work. PUROLITE resin was introduced into the DD process due to its good selectivity adsorption for nitrate and widespread availability. This study was conducted in order to benefit from each process, and it was an original and new combination. The retention ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • White Paper: Cyclical Aeration Control- Combining Aerobic & Anoxic Conditions in One Basin

    Increase Water Quality with Cyclical Aeration With increased effluent pollution restrictions on municipal wastewater treatment plants, cities are pressed to find ways to economically increase their effluent quality with little to no funding. Many new NPDES permits ...

  • Ceramic pot filters lifetime study in coastal Guatemala

    Ceramic pot filters (CPFs) are an effective means of household water treatment, but the characterization of CPF lifetimes is ongoing. This paper describes a lifetime field study in Guatemala which was made possible by a collaboration between researchers, CPF-using households, and local non-governmental organizations (NGOs). Disinfection data were collected periodically for two years using ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evidence of climate change impact on stream low flow from the tropical mountain rainforest watershed in Hainan Island, China

    Stream low flow estimates are central to assessing climate change impact, water resource management, and ecosystem restoration. This study investigated the impacts of climate change upon stream low flows from a rainforest watershed in Jianfengling (JFL) Mountain, Hainan Island, China, using the low flow selection method as well as the frequency and probability analysis technique. Results ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A water balance approach for assessing the potential source of water in Dohuk Dam for agricultural, domestic and tourism purposes

    Water balance approaches have been widely used to stimulate and forecast the average runoff and river discharge in small- and medium-sized basins. The analysis of water balance for Feesh Khabour River and Dohuk Dam catchment areas needs to be verified. This study used 24 alternative scenarios for assessing the robustness of adaptation decisions to water management practices. The discharge of ...


    By IWA Publishing

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