Water Footprints Articles

  • Water footprint of Xiamen city from production and consumption perspectives (2001–2012)

    Providing a comprehensive insight, water footprint (WF) is widely used to analyze and address water-use issues. In this study, a hybrid of bottom-up and top-down methods is applied to calculate, from production and consumption perspectives, the WF for Xiamen city from 2001 to 2012. Results show that the average production WF of Xiamen was 881.75 Mm3/year and remained relatively stable during ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Study on the water footprint and external water dependency of Beijing

    Beijing has experienced rapid economic development and population growth during recent decades, aggravating water scarcity. In order to investigate the water consumption of Beijing, this paper quantitatively evaluates the water footprint (WF), the intensity of the water footprint (Iwf) and the external water dependency (WD) based on the top-down and bottom-up methods. We obtain the following ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Bioethanol water footprint: life cycle optimization for water reduction

    In Thailand, the Alternative Energy Development Plan has set the target to increase the use of bioethanol to 9.00 million liters per day by 2021. To achieve this goal, both freshwater availability for energy crops and best practices in bioethanol production chain management are very important issues. Therefore, this study integrates water footprint technique with the linear programing approach ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing the environmental impact of the water footprint in Beijing, China

    Beijing is experiencing a shortage of water resources. Its rapid development and dense population have caused an extreme demand for water. This study quantifies the water footprint of Beijing at the sectoral level using a modified input–output model and estimates the impacts of freshwater use by life cycle impact assessment. The results suggest that the main water source of Beijing industries ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A preliminary water footprint assessment of copper production in China

    Scarcer water resources, stricter water regulations, decline in ore grade and increasing controversy on water use between local communities and mining operators have raised awareness of good water stewardship as being vital to running commercially viable mining operations. Water footprint assessment (WFA) is a holistic methodological framework that allows detailed quantification of direct and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Temporal and spatial changes of water footprint of maize production in Jilin Province

    Quantitation of the green, blue and grey water footprints (WFs) of crop production can distinguish the water types and amount in crop production, as well as the degree of freshwater pollution. This paper calculates the WF of maize production and assesses the temporal variability and spatial distribution of WFs in different types of rainfall years over Jilin Province from 1998 to 2012. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The industrial water footprint of zippers

    Industrial production of apparel consumes large quantity of freshwater and discharges effluents that intensify the problem of freshwater shortage and water pollution. The industrial water footprint (IWF) of a piece of apparel includes the water footprint (WF) of the fabric, apparel accessories (e.g. zipper, fastener, sewing thread) and industrial production processes. The objective of this paper ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An improved method for evaluating ecological suitability of hydropower development by considering water footprint and transportation connectivity in Tibet, China

    Ecological suitability evaluation for hydropower development is effective in locating the most suitable area for construction and emphasizes a clear direction for water resources governance. In this paper, water footprints and transportation connectivity were introduced to improve the existing ecological suitability evaluation application for hydropower development by revising the defects of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reducing Energy`s Water Footprint, Driving a Sustainable Energy Future

    Water is an essential natural resource that impacts all aspects of life: Clean and abundant supplies of water are vital for supporting the production of food, public health, industrial and energy development, and a healthy environment. Water is an integral part of energy extraction, production, and generation. It is used directly in hydroelectric power generation and is used extensively for ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Estimation of the water footprint of sugarcane in Mexico: is ethanol production an environmentally feasible fuel option?

    Energy policies are taken throughout the world to reduce fossil fuel emissions from transportation sources. Agriculturally based biofuels are currently the only alternatives to liquid fossil fuels. However, as biofuel production spreads, so too do its cascading impacts on environment and food security. This paper analyzes the impact of Mexican ethanol-sugarcane policy on water resources. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The water footprint of Milan

    This study quantifies the water footprint of consumption (WFcons) and production (WFprod) of Milan. The current WFcons amounts to 6,139 l/cap/d (a volume of 2.93 km3 annually), of which 52 l/cap/d (1%) is attributed to domestic water, 448 l/cap/d (7%) to the consumption of industrial products and 5,639 l/cap/d (92%) to the consumption of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Blue and grey water footprint of textile industry in China

    Water footprint (WF) is a newly developed idea that indicates impacts of freshwater appropriation and wastewater discharge. The textile industry is one of the oldest, longest and most complicated industrial chains in the world's manufacturing industries. However, the textile industry is also water intensive. In this paper, we applied a bottom-up approach to estimate the direct blue water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Chemical footprint: A methodological framework for bridging life cycle assessment and planetary boundaries for chemical pollution

    The development and use of footprint methodologies for environmental assessment are increasingly important for both the scientific and political communities. Starting from the ecological footprint, developed at the beginning of the 90s, several other footprints were defined, e.g. carbon and water footprint. These footprints ‐ even though based on different meaning of “footprint” ‐ integrate ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • The water footprint of Austria for different diets

    This paper analyses the Austrian water footprint of consumption (WFcons) for different diets: the current diet, a healthy diet (based upon the dietary recommendations issued by the German nutrition society, or DGE), a vegetarian diet and a combined diet between both latter diets. As in many western countries, the current Austrian diet consists of too many products from the groups sugar, crop ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reducing your CO2 Footprint by Advanced Global Trading

    A CO2 footprint is a measurement of the amount of greenhouse gases we produce through everyday activities. Of course most of us are aware that we can now calculate our CO2 footprint online. It’s largely just a matter of totting up our electricity and fuel bills. To then mitigate our personal contribution to global emissions we can purchase Emission Trading Permits (ETP). An ...


  • Collaboration Trumps competition for developers of water risk and stewardship tools

    This post is part of a series on World Water Week, an annual event designed to draw attention to and discuss global water issues. Read more posts in this series. This piece was co-authored by Anne-Leonore Boffi, Program Officer with the ...

  • GAEA - Case Study

    Project Results and Impacts: First oil production company to measure its product’s water footprint Supporting company brand image and reputation Increased awareness of water issues for different stakeholders CSE Solution  "Water Footprint" The Water Footprint of a product is the volume of freshwater used to produce the ...

  • The water footprint of sweeteners and bio-ethanol

    An increasing demand for food together with a growing demand for energy crops result in an increasing demand for and competition over water. Sugar cane, sugar beet and maize are not only essential food crops, but also important feedstock for bio-ethanol. Crop growth requires water, a scarce resource. This study aims to assess the green, blue and grey water footprint (WF) of sweeteners and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Footprint and Life Cycle Assessment as approaches to assess potential impacts of products on water consumption. Key learning points from pilot studies on tea and margarine

    Water accounting and environmental impact assessment across the product’s life cycle is gaining prominence. This paper presents two case studies of applying the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Water Footprint (WF) approaches to tea and margarine. The WF, excluding grey water, of a carton of 50 g tea is 294 L green water and 10 L blue water, and that of a 500 g tub of margarine is 553 L ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Global Monthly Water Scarcity: Blue Water Footprints versus Blue Water Availability

    Freshwater scarcity is a growing concern, placing considerable importance on the accuracy of indicators used to characterize and map water scarcity worldwide. We improve upon past efforts by using estimates of blue water footprints (consumptive use of ground- and surface water flows) rather than water withdrawals, accounting for the flows needed to sustain critical ecological functions and by ...


    By IWA Publishing

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