Water Hardness Articles

  • Cleaners concentration using foam height

    SUMMARY The foam level is proportional to the concentration of the cleaner. The concentration of each cleaner (Micro-90, Micro Green Clean, Micro A07, Surface-Cleanse/930, and Zymit Pro) may be estimated by entering the cleaner's foam height into the equations for either the blender method or the graduated cylinder method. The equations in this report should be used as a guideline only. It ...

  • How can I measure temporary and permanent water hardness?

    Hard water is water with high levels of dissolved minerals, and usually occurs in areas where limestone and chalk are common. These minerals can be divided into two types, and so hardness is often considered in two categories – permanent and temporary water hardness. So how can we measure water hardness? Can we measure temporary and permanent ...


    By Camlab Limited

  • Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water‐only exposures

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) were determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2‐ and 7‐d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4‐ and 41‐d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4‐ and 28‐d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4‐ and 34‐d ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Experiencing Ecological Sanitation (Eco-San) in Kenia

    Many cultures have understood the value of urine and faeces for agricultural purposes for centuries, and latrine designs based on the concepts of ecological sanitation have been used in Asia and parts of Africa for hundreds of years. So far, Ecological Sanitation (Eco-San) has made little progress in Africa despite decades of promotion by donors. The practical and environmental benefits of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Lead toxicity to Lemna minor predicted using a metal speciation chemistry approach

    In the present study, predictive measures for Pb toxicity and L. minor were developed from bioassays with 7 surface waters having varied chemistries (i.e., 0.5 to 12.5 mg/L dissolved organic carbon (DOC), pH 5.4 to 8.3 and water hardness 8 to 266 mg/L CaCO3). As expected based on water quality, 10, 20 and 50% inhibitory concentration (IC) values expressed as percent net root elongation (%NRE) ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • SCA Packaging Germany – case study

    OVERVIEW SCA Packaging is a European leading packaging company of customer-specific packaging with emphasis on state-of-art packaging design and local service close to customer facilities. With a product portfolio that includes transit packaging, consumer packaging, displays and promotional packaging, customized protective packaging and industrial packaging. SCA Packaging ...

  • Effect of water hardness and pipe material on enhanced disinfection with UV light and chlorine

    Limited studies have been conducted to evaluate synergistic benefits between disinfectants, although promise has been shown between ultraviolet (UV) light and chlorine-based disinfectants. This research aimed to determine drinking water quality factors that affect potential for enhanced removal of heterotrophic bacteria due to synergy between UV light and free chlorine. An additional goal was to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Environmental toxicity and radioactivity assessment of a titanium processing residue with potential for environmental use

    Thorough examination of the physico‐chemical characteristics of a Ti processing residue was undertaken including mineralogical, geochemical, and radiochemical characterisation, and an investigation of the environmental toxicity of softwater leachate generated from the residue. Concentrations of most metals measured in the leachate were low; thus, the residue is unlikely to leach high levels of ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • A solution for scale removal case study

    The Brookfields Restaurant chain consists of three large eateries located in and around Sacramento, Calif. Like many others, Brookfields Restaurants were equipped with water softeners to control lime scale on their hot water equipment, which consists of hot water heaters, dishwashers, steamers, coffeemakers and espresso machines. Even with the softeners, Brookfields Restaurants managers reported ...


    By HydroFLOW USA

  • Harpersville town water treated with eco-friendly scalewatcher

    The population of the small Alabama town of Harpersville is enjoying improved water quality, with less limescale corroding pipework and water-fed equipment, following the installation of the award-winning ScalewatcherÒ computerized, electronic water conditioner.  Within two weeks of the industrial Scalewatcher system being installed, local residents were contacting Harpersville Water ...

  • Water analysis

    A complete tap water analysis includes the determination of the pH value, the alkalinity and the total water hardness. Both the pH measurement and the pH titration by means of a standard pH electrode suffer from several drawbacks. First, the response time of several minutes is too long and, above all, the stirring rate significantly influences the measured pH value. Unlike these standard pH ...


    By Metrohm AG

  • Phoenix Paper Mill in China

    The Site: Phoenix paper mill is situated at Nanning, China where water hardness is aboye 200ppm. Every two weeks, production at the factory had to be stopped for 1 day for cleaning because of hard scale formation at different parts of the production une. A Chinese made electronic descaler was used before and proved to be a total failure. The client didn’t want to spend any more money to remove ...

  • California and National Toxics Rule Implementation and Development of Protective Hardness Based Metal Effluent Limitations

    ABSTRACTThe California and National Toxics Rules describe water quality standards for seven metals that vary as a function of hardness: (1) cadmium, (2) copper, (3) chromium III, (4) lead, (5) nickel, (6) silver, and (7) zinc. Some of the methodologies used by California Regional Water Quality Board, Central Valley Region, for assignment of metal effluent limits may be inconsistent with the ...

Need help finding the right suppliers? Try XPRT Sourcing. Let the XPRTs do the work for you