Water Hardness Articles

  • Case Study PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) test results in hard water region

    Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits.  A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known "Scaling" problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an "Open" mind, even those sceptical of our products ...

  • Best Biomass Carbonation Machine Currently Available

    Whenever a chemical process called pyrolysis occurs, it can create a couple different products that are really profitable. Typically, plastic or rubber tires are utilized, but in addition there are ways to convert biomass to the same kind of products. There may be a whole lot biomass in the present day that may be produced through the process of harvesting lumber, all of which simply goes toward ...


    By Beston Machinery Henan

  • E-Z Trays at Hard-to-Access Site - Case Study

    E-Z Tray® (U.S. Patent Number 5,518,668) Air Strippers have always been known for their ease of access and cleaning, but for this special site, an old industrial building in Brooklyn, New York, they also had to be installed without the use of any heavy equipment. The site was using a competitor's air stripper on the second floor of an older building and the units had become very ...


    By QED Environmental Systems

  • Work Hard. Don’t Quit. Keep an Open Mind. Career Tips for the Analytical Scientist!

    Tips for Making The Analytical Scientist’s Prized PowerList The Analytical Scientist magazine published its PowerList 2016 of the most influential women in the analytical sciences in October. Named to the list was ...


    By Waters Corporation

  • Areas Most Prone to Winter Storm Water Can Benefit from Temporary Erosion Control

    Winter can be a beautiful time of year. Generally, there are nice, brief storms and maybe some snow, and everything is fine. But occasionally, we get hit hard with storms that just won’t let up, such as when it rains for days or feet of snow come down—we are left to deal with the consequences. All too often, those consequences involve too much water, despite the work put into ...

  • The ethylene removal with Bi-On improves the conservation of Golden Japan plum

    In the following article, we describe an independent test conducted to evaluate the effect of different conservation techniques, including the ethylene removal with potassium permanganate media, on the quality of Golden Japan plums. The Golden Japan plum variety is appreciated for its golden colour, firm texture, and taste, which is sweet, aromatic and refreshing.Plum is a climateric ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characters of Soft or Hard Seal Valves

    Soft and hard seal are able to complement each other. The seal ability of soft one is better than hard one, however, hard seal now can also meet some requirements. Soft seal has better sealing ability, but can easily age, wear and has a short lifespan. Hard seal can be used longer, but has poorer sealing ability. Characters of Soft Seal Valves Soft seal: one side of the seal is ...

  • Deutsche Bahn, Germany - Deutsche Bahn uses Sialex to help control costs at its Mainz facility Case Study

    Deutsche Bahn (DB) has employed Sialex-Rings to control “Scale and Corrosion” in the offices water infrastructure, at their facility in Mainz, Germany Since 2007. After several years of escalating maintenance costs associated with dealing with the results of “hard” water, DB considered two options; an expensive “water softener” option or an environmentally ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Assessment of some combinations of hard and fuzzy clustering techniques for regionalisation of catchments in Sefidroud basin

    Cluster analysis methods are a type of well-known technique for regionalisation of catchments to perform regional flood frequency analysis. In this study, a fuzzy extension of hybrid clustering algorithms is evaluated. Self-organizing feature maps and four hierarchical clustering algorithms were used to provide the initial cluster centres for fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. The hybrid approach ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Internships Add Capacity to Investment Fund Efforts

    This summer, The Climate Trust, a mission-driven nonprofit that specializes in financing climate solutions, has been hosting two high-level interns for projects integral to advancing our burgeoning carbon investment fund. Our Packard Environment Fellow, Jeremy Menkhaus, will provide insight on the development of a carbon-neutral investment product, and our ...


    By The Climate Trust

  • Microorganism growth control - Case Study

    KDF Process Media uses Oxidation Reduction Process for Scale and Bacteria Removal A plastic injection molding plant uses KDF media to control microorganisms and eliminate scale build-up in cooling towers-at 25% of the cost of chemical treatments. Photo courtesy of Marley Tooling Technologies, Inc. KDF process media are incorporated into carbon blocks and other matrices for bacteria removal and ...


    By KDF Fluid Treatment, Inc.

  • Cooling Systems: Increased Costs from Mineral Scaling and Biological Fouling - Case Study

    Mineral scaling and biological fouling are two of the most common problems associated with watercooled systems, and the costs from these issues can be enormous. By understanding how these issues affect cooling water systems, and their associated cost drivers, facility managers can make informed decisions on proper scale and biological fouling control. Scale Definition ...


    By Innovas Technologies LLC

  • Evaluation of consumers’ preferences on drinking waters considering the information provision effect

    Despite a high drinkable quality, many people avoid tap water because of vague anxiety about its safety. Conjoint analysis (CA) was conducted to determine what factors are considered important for consumers’ selection of drinking water. The information provision effect was also investigated inside CA profiles using different model equations. Results indicate that the perception of the safety ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hard coal as a potential low-cost adsorbent for removal of 4-chlorophenol from water

    The potential use of raw hard coals as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from aqueous solutions was examined. The effect of experimental parameters such as the pH and salt presence was evaluated. The kinetic studies showed the equilibrium time was found to be 2 h for all of the adsorbents and that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The secure destruction of the hard disk: from today, with SatrindTech it`s even easier

    Every time that we install programs or apps for our smartphones, when we use internet services or we sign modules, we consent to the treatment of our personal data, which is generally digitized on electronic supports (generally hard disks). Correct management of our privacy requires total protection of the data contained, even during the destruction phase, of these supports. International laws ...


    By SatrindTech Srl

  • Acute and chronic toxicity of sodium sulfate to four freshwater organisms in water‐only exposures

    The acute and chronic toxicity of sulfate (tested as sodium sulfate) were determined in diluted well water (hardness of 100 mg/L and pH 8.2) with a cladoceran (Ceriodaphnia dubia; 2‐ and 7‐d exposures), a midge (Chironomus dilutus; 4‐ and 41‐d exposures), a unionid mussel (pink mucket, Lampsilis abrupta; 4‐ and 28‐d exposures), and a fish (fathead minnow, Pimephales promelas; 4‐ and 34‐d ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • POLITICO takes a hard look at the future of energy

    In 2007, the investigative news site POLITICO launched and quickly became a go-to source for news about policy decisions coming from the nation’s capital. Now, the folks behind POLITICO are turning their lens to the U.S. energy sector with Future of Power, the inaugural special report of the Agenda, ...


    By Ensia

  • Corrosion Control in data Center

    CORROSIVE GASES: Small concentrations, serious consequences EU standard 2002/95/EC, or RoHS (Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment), which was implemented in July 2006, restricts the use of hazardous substances in the manufacture of electrical and/or electronic equipment. One of the banned substances is lead (Pb), which is used for soldering ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

  • Corrosion Control in data Centers

    EU standard 2002/95/EC, or RoHS (Restriction of the use of certain Hazardous Substances in electrical and electronic equipment), which was implemented in July 2006, restricts the use of hazardous substances in the manufacture of electrical and/or electronic equipment.   One of the banned substances is lead (Pb), which is used for soldering circuit boards and other components in hard disks, ...


    By Bioconservacion SA

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