Water Intake Structures Articles

  • How a new source of water is helping reduce conflict in the Middle East

    Scientists and others look to desalination as a way to unite longtime enemies in a common cause. Ten miles south of Tel Aviv, I stand on a catwalk over two concrete reservoirs the size of football fields and watch water pour into them from a massive pipe emerging from the sand. The pipe is so large I could walk through it standing upright, were it not full of Mediterranean seawater pumped ...


    By Ensia

  • iSTREEM®: An approach for broad‐scale in‐stream exposure assessment of “down‐the‐drain” chemicals

    The iSTREEM® model (“in‐stream exposure model”), a web‐based model made freely available to the public by the American Cleaning Institute, provides a means to estimate concentrations of “down‐the‐drain” chemicals in effluent, receiving waters, and drinking water intakes across national and regional scales under mean annual and low flow conditions. We provide an overview of the evolution and ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Nuclear power plant keeps intakes clean - case study

    When this nuclear power plant in the Great Lakes region needed reliable traveling water screens to keep it’s intakes clean, they chose International Water Screens. Vertical screens with hoods provide clean water to create steam to generate up to 725,000 kilowatts of electricity for the surrounding region. This project included: Traveling Screen(s) Elevator ...


    By International Water Screens

  • San Francisco bay area city cleans Mossy mess - case study

    In Contra Costa County, east of San Francisco, we installed an IWS Screen to remove all types of water borne debris including moss, grass, hyacinth and tumbleweeds.   The installation reduces man hours and risk of injury from raking trash racks as well as keeping service lines clear. This project included: Traveling Screen(s) Elevator Pump ...


    By International Water Screens

  • Eight screens for California aqueduct - case study

    The Berrenda Mesa Water Districts’ California Aqueduct pumping station had a massive debris problem, causing high labor costs, injuries and endless headaches — until they contacted International Water Screens. We engineered and installed a large array of moss removal screens. Now: Labor issues resolved, no racks to clean. Pump efficiencies have improved to the point where the project ...


    By International Water Screens

  • Distribution and extraction of chromium from phosphate ore

    Phosphate rocks are a vital and non-renewable resource which is crucial for agricultural uses. However, this raw material contains various contaminants such as Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn. Among these elements, chromium is considered as an essential micronutrient at low intake levels. Its occurrence in industrial products at higher concentration can cause a potential risk to plants, animals and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Discharge Measurement in a Short Intake with a Converging Section – a Case Study

    In the context of a planned retrofit and upgrade of the hydropower plant Wettingen, operated by the Elektrizitätswerke Zürich, three intakes were equipped with acoustic transit time flow measuring devices. Since the flow meters are installed in a converging section, downstream of a pier, it became necessary to perform numerical flow simulations in order to weight the acoustic path ...


    By HydroVision GmbH

  • Effects of plumbing systems on human exposure to disinfection byproducts in water: a case study

    Disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water distribution systems (WDS) are monitored for regulatory compliance, while populations are exposed to DBPs in tap water that may be different due to stagnation of water in plumbing pipes (PP) and heating in hot water tanks (HWT). This study investigated the effects of water stagnation in PP and HWT on exposure and risk of DBPs to humans. Trihalomethanes ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Assessing the potential use of abandoned mining pools as an alternative resource of raw water supply

    The water crisis in the state of Selangor has prompted the state water authority to use water from abandoned mining pools as an alternative resource of raw water supply. In this study, the potential use of the mining pool water has been assessed to evaluate its safe use for potable water consumption, which is the source of raw water to be supplied to water treatment plants. Assessments were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Guarantee rate of freshwater in a river mouth intruded by saltwater with respect to the joint impact of runoff and tide

    Saltwater intrusion is detrimental to water utilization. It is of vital significance to study the joint impact of runoff and tide on salinity and the risk of saltwater intrusion. To analyze the risk of saltwater intrusion, this paper proposes two concepts: critical runoff–tide level line and guarantee rate of freshwater. Taking Nandu River Estuary in China as a study case, a three-dimensional ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • An optimization procedure for the sustainable management of water resources

    The sustainable management of water resources requires the identification of procedures to optimize the use and management of resources that are able to deal adequately with the problems of an integrated water service. Taking cue from the classic problem of transport of operations research, this paper proposes a procedure to optimize the allocation of resources for water supply in an area. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Determination of total vanadium and vanadium(V) in groundwater from Mt. Etna and estimate of daily intake of vanadium(V) through drinking water

    Vanadium(V) can be found in natural waters in the form of V(IV) and V(V) species, which have different biological properties and toxicity. The purpose of this study was to determine the concentrations of total V and V(V) in groundwater from the area of Mt. Etna and to assess the estimated daily intake (EDI) of V(V) of adults and children through drinking water. Water was sampled monthly at 21 ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Algal control and enhanced removal in drinking waters in Cairo, Egypt

    Algal blooms at the major water treatment plants in Egypt have been reported since 2006. While previous studies focused on algal types and their correlation with disinfection by-products, correlation between raw water quality and algal blooms were not explored. Therefore, a survey of Nile water quality parameters at a major water intake in the Greater Cairo Urban Region was conducted from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sea water desalination – potable water application case studies

    Challenge Facing challenges of clean water shortages in Tekoradi, Ghana with the burgeoning oil/gas sector in the area offshore, something had to be done to increase clean water supply to supply the growing needs of both the military base at Tekoradi and the surrounding community. Solution Knowing the water demands were increasing, Genesis Water Technologies ...

  • Hydraulic system to ensure constant rainfall intensity (over time) when using nozzle rainfall simulators

    Rainfall simulation is widely used in the laboratory and in field work to produce artificial rainfall for small-scale surface hydrology and soil erosion studies. Simulated rainfall produced by simulators must be predictable, accurate and consistent to be useful to model the related physical processes. Pressure fluctuations in the water supply system frequently cause variation in rainfall ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Centinela: an early warning system for the water quality of the Cauca River

    The Cauca River is the drinking water source for 1.3 million inhabitants of the city of Cali, Colombia. Although the river discharge is sufficient to handle the water demand of the city all year long, significant water pollution events cause frequent disruption to the Puerto Mallarino Treatment Plant (PMTP) and the water supply service, with substantial social and economic impacts on the city. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • How to clean solar lights

    Summer's over and now is the ideal time for a hefty portion of us here in the United States to consider fall cleanup. In the event that you have solar powered lighting, or any scene lights besides, it’s not difficult to harm or even demolish lights once rakes and leaf blowers turn out. Fortunately, there are some simple and fast ...


    By Greenshine New Energy LLC

  • Exposure and food web transfer of pharmaceuticals in ospreys (Pandion haliaetus): Predctive model and empirical data

    The osprey (Pandion haliaetus) is a well‐known sentinel of environmental contamination, yet no studies have traced pharmaceuticals through the water‐fish‐osprey food web. A screening‐level exposure assessment was used to evaluate the bioaccumulation potential of 113 pharmaceuticals and metabolites, and an artificial sweetener in this food web. Hypothetical concentrations in water reflecting ...


    By John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  • Cold exergy recovery during LNG regasification through a closed Brayton cycle

    The liquified natural gas (LNG) regasification process is a source of cold exergy capable of being recovered for the exploitation of energy conversion. This paper presents a novel power plant structure that makes use of the LNG regasification process to increase the energy and exergy efficiency. The power plant consists of a closed Brayton cycle (CBC) fuelled by the flue gas released by the ...


    By Inderscience Publishers

  • Mold, Mold Growth and Buildings

    Concern about mold exposures in buildings continues to be a significant issue. The bottom line is that mold has been around for eons and is not going away.  It will grow whenever and wherever buildings get wet and materials suitable for mold growth are present.  The following paragraphs are meant to shed light on mold issues related to microbiology, health and safety, moisture control, ...

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