Water Reuse Articles

  • How to make domestic water reuse optimized through better strategies?

    Effective treatment of domestic waters and their reuse has become essential in modern times. Though such processes have technologically advanced in a significant fashion, it needs expertise or understanding of technology for proper execution. In addition, special strategies also have to be applied for process optimization. Strategies for greater conservation: It has become ...

  • Estimation of water quality by UV/Vis spectrometry in the framework of treated wastewater reuse

    The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of ultraviolet/visible (UV/Vis) spectrometry as a complementary method for routine monitoring of reclaimed water production. Robustness of the models and compliance of their sensitivity with current quality limits are investigated. The following indicators are studied: total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, chemical oxygen demand (COD) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cost comparison of full-scale water reclamation technologies with an emphasis on membrane bioreactors

    The paper assesses the costs of full-scale membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Capital expenditures (CAPEX) and operating expenses (OPEX) of Spanish MBR facilities have been verified and compared to activated sludge plants (CAS) using water reclamation treatment (both conventional and advanced). Spanish MBR facilities require a production of 0.6 to 1.2 kWh per m3, while extended aeration (EA) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Studies of selective adsorption, desorption and reuse of chemically altered biomass produced from aquatic macrophytes for treatment of metal-containing wastewater

    The aquatic macrophytes Salvinia sp. and Pistia stratiotes have a natural capacity to adsorb various elements, including heavy metals. This capacity was enhanced with a chemical treatment using NaOH alkaline solution for Salvinia sp. and a mixture of both Salvinia sp. and Pistia stratiotes at a proportion of 1:1, whose ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A survey of attitudes and acceptance of wastewater reuse in Iran: Shiraz City as a case study

    People's attitudes are a key issue in the use of reclaimed wastewater. Unfortunately, there is not enough research on the use of reclaimed wastewater in developing countries such as Iran. The present study aimed to investigate public acceptance and citizens' attitudes toward reclaimed wastewater in Shiraz, Iran. A two-part questionnaire, designed to collect demographic data and information ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Solution blooming for fracking spills?

    Blooming salts may clean up after brine spills North Dakota's oil boom can have a salty side-effect. Wastewater from oil drilling and hydraulic fracturing – or fracking – is often laden with salts and can spill, contaminating soils. In 2014, for example, 42 such brine spills per week, on average, were recorded in North Dakota. Brine spills introduce so ...


    By American Society of Agronomy

  • Water reuse through managed aquifer recharge (MAR): assessment of regulations/guidelines and case studies

    Managed aquifer recharge (MAR) with reclaimed water is an important water reuse application. As an intentional way of recharging water into aquifers, MAR can be used to address water shortages and contribute to sustainable water resources management practices. The establishment of a MAR system depends on the source of recharge water, the selection of a recharge method and site, the type of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Reuse Terminology

    All water on Earth is used and reused, over and over, in an elegant water cycle. Water reuse occurs in various ways on a daily basis. It happens when a community’s treated wastewater is discharged into rivers or other water bodies. If you live in a community downstream of another, chances are you are reusing water from an upstream town. Scientifically proven advances in water technology ...


    By WateReuse

  • Incidental potable water reuse in a Catalonian basin: living downstream

    A preliminary assessment of incidental potable water reuse (IPR) in the Llobregat River basin has been conducted by estimating the dilution factor of treated effluent discharges upstream of six river flow measurement sections. IPR in the Llobregat River basin is an everyday occurrence, because of the systematic discharge of treated effluents upstream of river sections used as drinking water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Forward osmosis membrane fouling and cleaning for wastewater reuse

    Membrane fouling properties and different physical cleaning methods for forward osmosis (FO) and reverse osmosis (RO) laboratory-scale filtration systems were investigated. The membrane fouling, with respect to flux reduction, was lower in FO than in RO when testing an activated sludge effluent. Cross-flow velocity, air-scouring, osmotic backwashing and effect of a spacer were compared to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treatment of leather industrial wastewater via combined advanced oxidation and membrane filtration

    The liming/unhairing operation is among the important processes of the leather industry. It generates large amounts of effluent that are highly loaded with organic hazard wastes. Such effluent is considered one of the most obnoxious materials in the leather industry, causing serious environmental pollution and health risks. The effluent is characterized by high concentrations of the pollution ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Beyond the barriers of water reuse

    Water reuse may be the moment’s most talked about treatment industry topic. It’s no wonder that as drought persists in regions throughout the world without sign of subsiding, questions about how we can make the most of our water are being asked. An answer can be found in the ways that we apply membrane bioreactor (MBR) technology. As one of the most central components for water ...


    By Bio-Microbics, Inc.

  • Water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP): a refinery case study

    The key approach to manage and prevent potential hazards arising from specific contaminants in water networks is to consider water as the main product delivered. This new concept, addressed as water-reuse risk assessment program (WRAP), has been further developed from hazard analysis of critical control points (HACCP) to illustrate the potential hazards which are the roots of hindering ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water Reuse Options for Industrial Plants

    Water can be a high cost commodity for an industrial operation.  In addition, industrial water consumption uses approximately 22% of water worldwide, a percentage that bothers water-conscious customers. To cut back on costs, as well as reduce environmental impact, industrial plants are considering water reuse. Plants have several options when it comes to water reuse, which  ...


    By KLa Systems, Inc.

  • Can constructed wetlands treat wastewater for reuse in agriculture? Review of guidelines and examples in South Europe

    South Europe is one of the areas negatively affected by climate change. Issues with water shortage are already visible, and are likely to increase. Since agriculture is the biggest freshwater consumer, it is important to find new water sources that could mitigate the climate change impact. In order to overcome problems and protect the environment, a better approach towards wastewater ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application of forward osmosis in reusing the brackish concentrate produced in reverse osmosis plants with secondary treated wastewater as feed solution: a case study

    This study evaluated the feasibility of forward osmosis (FO) in diluting and reusing the concentrate produced in a reverse osmosis (RO) plant in James City County, VA. Secondary treated wastewater (STW) was used as the feed solution. Findings indicated that pH had slight effects on the water flux of the FO membrane. As the concentration of total dissolved solids (TDS) in the concentrate was ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Application performance of a new coagulant in wastewater reuse

    Ultraviolet (UV) absorption characteristics of poly-Al-Zn-Fe (PAZF), a polymerized coagulant containing three kinds of metallic elements prepared from a galvanized-aluminum slag, was analyzed by UV-visible spectrophotometry during its polymerization process. Pollutant removal by PAZF in treating various wastewaters was investigated, in comparison with that of polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Decentralized Water Reuse

    Water is an integral part of our society today. This vital resource is used in the operations of many industrial processes, human consumption, and for food production to name just a few. The increasing demands for water for agricultural, drinking and industrial processes has put significant strain on global fresh water supplies as the world's population continues to grow. In many parts of the ...

  • Environmental performance of wastewater reuse systems: impact of system boundaries and external conditions

    Wastewater reclamation will be a significant part of future water management and the environmental assessment of various treatment systems to reuse wastewater has become an important research field. The secondary treatment process and sludge handling on-site are, especially, electricity demanding processes due to aeration, pumping, mixing, dewatering, etc. used for operation and are being ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Health impact assessment of wastewater reuse for replenishing an urban landscape lake by disability-adjusted life year

    Wastewater reuse for landscape water replenishment has raised severe public concerns over potential health hazards. Thus, this study aims to quantify the health impacts due to the replenishment of Lake Cui in Kunming with reclaimed water. Based on experimental analyses, Escherichia coli and norovirus were determined as the major pathogens in Lake Cui. Three typical exposure routes, namely ...


    By IWA Publishing

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