Water Softening Articles

  • Treating wastewater as a resource

    A number of UK landfill operators are turning wastewater into a resource by utilising OTT monitoring and control systems to manage the irrigation of Willow crops (for renewable energy generation) with pre-treated effluent. Background Leachate from landfill sites represents a significant potential environmental liability, extending long into the future after a landfill site has ...

  • Deutsche Bahn, Germany - Deutsche Bahn uses Sialex to help control costs at its Mainz facility Case Study

    Deutsche Bahn (DB) has employed Sialex-Rings to control “Scale and Corrosion” in the offices water infrastructure, at their facility in Mainz, Germany Since 2007. After several years of escalating maintenance costs associated with dealing with the results of “hard” water, DB considered two options; an expensive “water softener” option or an environmentally ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organic micropollutant removal from groundwater: comparison of pellet softening and nanofiltration

    This study investigated the fate of selected pharmaceuticals and estrogens and the characteristics of bulk organic matter during pellet softening and proposed a possible hybridization with nanofiltration (NF) treatment. A groundwater softening system called pellet softening was used to remove calcium ions from groundwater by crystallizing calcium carbonate on the surface of sand grains that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characteristics and kinetics simulation of controlled-release KMnO4 for phenol remediation

    Controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) technology has been recently developed as an improved, highly efficient technique in wastewater treatment. In this study, batch-style experiments were conducted to evaluate this technology. The release characteristics of CRP in distilled water and the reaction between CRP and phenol were studied and fitted using MATLAB software. Results indicated that in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of real textile dye house wastewater by response surface methodology

    This study evaluates the advanced oxidation process for decolorization of real textile dyeing wastewater containing azo and disperse dye by TiO2 and UV radiation. Among effective parameters on the photocatalytic process, effects of three operational parameters (TiO2 concentration, initial pH and aeration flow rate) were examined with response surface methodology. The F-value (136.75) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Calcium removal by softening of water affects biofilm formation on PVC, glass and membrane surfaces

    Literature data on the effect of calcium on biofilm structures induced a preliminary study. The effect of calcium removal by water softening (<1.0 mg Ca2+.L−1) under real-world drinking water conditions on biofilm formation was studied in a pilot plant with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and in a laboratory-scale biofilm production unit (BPU) with plasticized polyvinyl chloride ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reference: Well water treatment for ethanol production

    Europe’s largest ethanol plant in the future requires different water qualities for several processes. A state-of-the-art turn-key water treatment system from ProMinent with reverse osmosis plants and water softener fulfils this challenge. Turning corn into ethanol In Dunaföldvár, south of the Hungarian capital Budapest, the company Pannonia Ethanol Zrt. ...

  • Hard coal as a potential low-cost adsorbent for removal of 4-chlorophenol from water

    The potential use of raw hard coals as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from aqueous solutions was examined. The effect of experimental parameters such as the pH and salt presence was evaluated. The kinetic studies showed the equilibrium time was found to be 2 h for all of the adsorbents and that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A clinoptilolite-PDMS mixed-matrix membrane for high temperature water softening

    A mixed-matrix membrane composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the continuous phase and clinoptilolite, a naturally occurring zeolite, as the active phase has been used to decrease the conductivity of water by more than 80% across the membrane. Testing was carried out using a cross-flow configuration at temperatures as high as 160 °C using a constant transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comprehensive scenario management of sustainable spatial planning and urban water services

    Adaptations of existing central water supply and wastewater disposal systems to demographic, climatic and socioeconomic changes require a profound knowledge about changing influencing factors. The paper presents a scenario management approach for the identification of future developments of drivers influencing water infrastructures. This method is designed within a research project with the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water and antiaging fact sheet

    Staying hydrated is an important part of every skin care regimen. Because skin dries as it ages, drinking water not only maintains healthy, younger-looking skin but also helps skin detoxify itself, reducing the effects of sunlight and everyday pollutants from smoking and smog. Luckily, drinking enough water is easy when it tastes great, because the filtering process removes contaminants that make ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Water and lifestyle fact sheet

    Water touches nearly every aspect of people’s lives. Only one percent of water that comes into a home is used for drinking. The other 99 percent is working water, proving that the benefits of high-quality water extend far beyond the kitchen faucet. When water quality is subpar, the effects reverberate throughout the home. The elements in hard water build up in pipes and appliances and cause ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Understanding water fact sheet

    Nearly 326 million trillion gallons of water cover more than 70 percent of the Earth, making it the most common element on the planet. Water is the only resource found naturally as a solid, liquid and gas. The atmosphere carries 40 trillion gallons of water across the country and drops 40 percent of its moisture as precipitation every day. All of this water helps regulate the temperature and ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Kinetico Incorporated fact sheet

    PROFILE Kinetico is one of the world’s leading manufacturers of water treatment products with specialized products serving residential, commercial, industrial and municipal markets. RESIDENTIAL/COMMERCIAL PRODUCTS Water conditioners Water softeners Drinking water systems (reverse osmosis) Carbon filters ...


    By Kinetico International

  • The Savoy Hotel, London - Case Study

    As part of the ambitious £100 million restoration project, new water softening equipment from Kinetico has been installed at the recently re-opened Savoy in London, one of the world’s great, iconic hotels. The Kinetico system will eliminate problems with hard water, helping to maintain the efficiency and performance of building services plant whilst making sure that surfaces and ...


    By Kinetico International

  • 12 years and still going strong for Kinetico and Tesco case study

    Over the last 12 years, Kinetico products have been the preferred choice when it comes to water treatment in new Tesco stores. Selected for their energy efficiency and simple operation, Kinetico’s Mach 2030s and 2060s provide stores across the UK with softened water. Keeping appliances efficient for as long as possible is a key factor when Tesco ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Pure water from Kinetico at the Worcestershire Royal Hospital case study

    When the Worcestershire Royal Hospital opened, it had been equipped with a Kinetico water treatment system to supply pure hot water to its theatre areas and to washer disinfector units used for cleaning and disinfecting medical devices. In recent years, partly in response to concerns about the transmission of variant CJD via reusable surgical instruments; and also with regard to the risk ...


    By Kinetico International

  • Pumped hydro storage softens blow of wind imbalance penalties

    Quarry Battery is developer of the £160 million ($249.2 million) Glyn Rhonwy pumped hydro facility in Wales which will be the UK’s first grid-scale electricity storage facility for decades. The facility will produce nearly 50 MW of electricity using pumped hydro technology. As more fossil fuel-fired generation is taken offline and wind capacity grows, grid operators will ask wind ...

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