Water Softening Articles

  • Caries affected by calcium and fluoride in drinking water and family income

    Water quality and socioeconomics influence caries in populations. This study broadens previous studies on how caries is associated with fluoride and calcium in drinking water and with family income by quantifying the combined effect of the three independent variables. The effects of calcium and fluoride can be described as independent effects of the two ions or, alternatively, in the form of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Plastic Contaminates 94% of U.S. Tap Water

    After a thorough investigation Orb Media has released the findings of their study regarding plastic fiber contamination in drinking water. According to the results, a staggering 94% of the tap water in the United States is contaminated with plastic fibers. The United States had the highest contamination rate of any country that was analyzed for the study. For comparison, France had the lowest ...


    By Enviro Water Products

  • Types of Water Treatment Systems

    There are different types of water treatment systems, and knowing the difference between them can help you make an informed decision on just what type of treatment you’ll need for your water. There is no best water treatment system that will meet everyone’s needs—each system has its benefits and deficiencies. Here are a few ...

  • Low-Chemical Solution for Juice Demineralization - Case Study

    PROJECT DETAILS LOCATION Vicenza, Italy CUSTOMER Italian Fruit Juice Company SOLUTION Juice Demineralization Plant TECHNOLOGY 4SMB Chromatography At an Italian organic foods plant, Fluence installed 4SMB chromatography for a low chemical, economical solution ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • Life cycle assessment study on polishing units for use of treated wastewater in agricultural reuse

    A life cycle assessment (LCA) approach was used in the assessment of environmental impacts of some polishing units for reuse of wastewater treatment plant effluents in agricultural irrigation. These alternative polishing units were assessed: (1) microfiltration and ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, (2) cartridge filter and ultrafiltration (UF), and (3) just UV disinfection. Two different energy ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Hard Facts about Hard Water

    Have you noticed unwanted mineral buildups on your faucets? Are your clothes dull and scratchy? These are common signs of hard water, an issue affecting many households, in particular those getting their water from a well. ...


    By AquaBSafe

  • 2017 NEMC LIMS Session Presentations

    The presentations in the LIMS Session at NEMC this year may be downloaded off the following link under LIMS in the Modern Laboratory. More about Khemia Software Khemia Software is a premier provider of Laboratory Information Management Systems (LIMS) for the environmental, water/wastewater, food & ...


    By Khemia Software Inc

  • What is an Ion Exchange System and How Does it Work?

    Ion exchange (IX) systems are used across a variety of industries for water softening, purification, and separation purposes. While the chemistry of individual ion exchange reactions vary from one application to the next, IX is a treatment process where dissolved ions are replaced by other, more desirable, ions of a similar electrical charge. If you’re wondering whether IX is right for your ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Why choose Sialex over traditional salt based Ion Exchanger

    We are regularly asked to compare our product with that of competitors. The market place for "Scale and Corrosion" control devices is large and there ae many different offerings. Customers select products based upon many parameters. Some parameters are emotional others purely objective. Most products for sale have positives to offer. Sometimes the message presented to the potential ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Common Myths about Water Softeners

    It’s not uncommon for our Hague Water dealers to get questions about sodium consumption from water softeners, the efficiency of water softeners and the expenses of operating water softeners. We uncover three, most popular common myths in our industry.Hague Quality Water Some people think that you cannot drink water from a water softener system because it has too much sodium. This ...


    By Hague Quality Water

  • Evaluation of passive reduction of nitrate from greenhouse effluent by planted bioreactors

    A number of pilot-scale gravel and wood-chip hybrid bioreactors planted with select species, together with unplanted units, were evaluated for their nutrient removal capabilities from the typical greenhouse effluent with high levels of nitrate and salts. Two levels of nutrient solution (high and low loading: HL/LL) were prepared to simulate the typical characteristics of the greenhouse ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) test results in hard water region - Case Study

    Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits.  A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known "Scaling" problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an "Open" mind, even those sceptical of our products ...

  • Process optimization via response surface methodology in the treatment of metal working industry wastewater with electrocoagulation

    In this study, process parameters in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal from metal working industry (MWI) wastewater were optimized by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum, iron and steel electrodes. The effects of process variables on COD and turbidity were investigated by developing a mathematical model using central composite design method, which is one of the response ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Deutsche Bahn, Germany - Deutsche Bahn uses Sialex to help control costs at its Mainz facility - Case Study

    Deutsche Bahn (DB) has employed Sialex-Rings to control “Scale and Corrosion” in the offices water infrastructure, at their facility in Mainz, Germany Since 2007. After several years of escalating maintenance costs associated with dealing with the results of “hard” water, DB considered two options; an expensive “water softener” option or an environmentally ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organic micropollutant removal from groundwater: comparison of pellet softening and nanofiltration

    This study investigated the fate of selected pharmaceuticals and estrogens and the characteristics of bulk organic matter during pellet softening and proposed a possible hybridization with nanofiltration (NF) treatment. A groundwater softening system called pellet softening was used to remove calcium ions from groundwater by crystallizing calcium carbonate on the surface of sand grains that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of real textile dye house wastewater by response surface methodology

    This study evaluates the advanced oxidation process for decolorization of real textile dyeing wastewater containing azo and disperse dye by TiO2 and UV radiation. Among effective parameters on the photocatalytic process, effects of three operational parameters (TiO2 concentration, initial pH and aeration flow rate) were examined with response surface methodology. The F-value (136.75) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Calcium removal by softening of water affects biofilm formation on PVC, glass and membrane surfaces

    Literature data on the effect of calcium on biofilm structures induced a preliminary study. The effect of calcium removal by water softening (<1.0 mg Ca2+.L−1) under real-world drinking water conditions on biofilm formation was studied in a pilot plant with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and in a laboratory-scale biofilm production unit (BPU) with plasticized polyvinyl chloride ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reference: Well water treatment for ethanol production

    Europe’s largest ethanol plant in the future requires different water qualities for several processes. A state-of-the-art turn-key water treatment system from ProMinent with reverse osmosis plants and water softener fulfils this challenge. Turning corn into ethanol In Dunaföldvár, south of the Hungarian capital Budapest, the company Pannonia Ethanol Zrt. ...

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