Water Softening Articles

  • What is an Ion Exchange System and How Does it Work?

    Ion exchange (IX) systems are used across a variety of industries for water softening, purification, and separation purposes. While the chemistry of individual ion exchange reactions vary from one application to the next, IX is a treatment process where dissolved ions are replaced by other, more desirable, ions of a similar electrical charge. If you’re wondering whether IX is right for your ...


    By SAMCO Technologies, Inc.

  • Why choose Sialex over traditional salt based Ion Exchanger

    We are regularly asked to compare our product with that of competitors. The market place for "Scale and Corrosion" control devices is large and there ae many different offerings. Customers select products based upon many parameters. Some parameters are emotional others purely objective. Most products for sale have positives to offer. Sometimes the message presented to the potential ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Common Myths about Water Softeners

    It’s not uncommon for our Hague Water dealers to get questions about sodium consumption from water softeners, the efficiency of water softeners and the expenses of operating water softeners. We uncover three, most popular common myths in our industry.Hague Quality Water Some people think that you cannot drink water from a water softener system because it has too much sodium. This ...


    By Hague Quality Water

  • Case Study PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) test results in hard water region

    Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits.  A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known "Scaling" problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an "Open" mind, even those sceptical of our products ...

  • Case Study PHE Solving fouling test results

    Industry, hotels, commercial buildings even private homes in "Hard" water areas are at a disadvantage due to "Scale" formation on devices, particularly those attached to "Hot" water circuits. A PHE (Plate Heat Exchanger) with a known “Scaling” problem is selected for testing. The attached case study demonstrates how with an “open mind”, even those sceptical of our products ...


    By Phoenix Ring Manufaktur UG

  • Process optimization via response surface methodology in the treatment of metal working industry wastewater with electrocoagulation

    In this study, process parameters in chemical oxygen demand (COD) and turbidity removal from metal working industry (MWI) wastewater were optimized by electrocoagulation (EC) using aluminum, iron and steel electrodes. The effects of process variables on COD and turbidity were investigated by developing a mathematical model using central composite design method, which is one of the response ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Methods of Purification

    Water Innovations Water Systems Carbon Filtration is used for several reasons. Its primary purpose is the reduction of chlorine to less than 0.1 ppm. Chorine can damage softener resins, reverse osmosis membranes, and mixed bed deionization resins. Activated carbon will also help control tastes and odors, provide organic and hazardous organic chemical ...


    By Water Innovations, Inc

  • Cardiovascular diseases and hard drinking waters: implications from a systematic review with meta-analysis of case-control studies

    This systematic review with meta-analysis, performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA) guidelines, aims at evaluating the potential correlation between magnesium and calcium concentration in drinking waters and the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD), which impose a considerable burden in high-income countries. Included studies were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Treating wastewater as a resource

    A number of UK landfill operators are turning wastewater into a resource by utilising OTT monitoring and control systems to manage the irrigation of Willow crops (for renewable energy generation) with pre-treated effluent. Background Leachate from landfill sites represents a significant potential environmental liability, extending long into the future after a landfill site has ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

  • Optimization of cyanide extraction from wastewater using emulsion liquid membrane system by response surface methodology

    To solve the disposal problem of cyanide wastewater, removal of cyanide from wastewater using a water-in-oil emulsion type of emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) was studied in this work. Specifically, the effects of surfactant Span-80, carrier trioctylamine (TOA), stripping agent NaOH solution and the emulsion-to-external-phase-volume ratio on removal of cyanide were investigated. Removal of total ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organic micropollutant removal from groundwater: comparison of pellet softening and nanofiltration

    This study investigated the fate of selected pharmaceuticals and estrogens and the characteristics of bulk organic matter during pellet softening and proposed a possible hybridization with nanofiltration (NF) treatment. A groundwater softening system called pellet softening was used to remove calcium ions from groundwater by crystallizing calcium carbonate on the surface of sand grains that ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Characteristics and kinetics simulation of controlled-release KMnO4 for phenol remediation

    Controlled-release KMnO4 (CRP) technology has been recently developed as an improved, highly efficient technique in wastewater treatment. In this study, batch-style experiments were conducted to evaluate this technology. The release characteristics of CRP in distilled water and the reaction between CRP and phenol were studied and fitted using MATLAB software. Results indicated that in ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Optimization of photocatalytic degradation of real textile dye house wastewater by response surface methodology

    This study evaluates the advanced oxidation process for decolorization of real textile dyeing wastewater containing azo and disperse dye by TiO2 and UV radiation. Among effective parameters on the photocatalytic process, effects of three operational parameters (TiO2 concentration, initial pH and aeration flow rate) were examined with response surface methodology. The F-value (136.75) and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simulation of antimony adsorption on nano-zero valent iron and kaolinite and analyzing the influencing parameters

    Antimony is one of the most toxic pollutants in industrial and mineral wastewaters threatening the life of humans and other creatures. We simulated the adsorption of antimony in the presence of nano-zero valent iron (nZVI) adsorbent, on kaolinite and in the presence of nZVI coated on kaolinite from mineral wastewater using VISUAL MINTEQ 3.1 software. Our aim was to determine the factors ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Calcium removal by softening of water affects biofilm formation on PVC, glass and membrane surfaces

    Literature data on the effect of calcium on biofilm structures induced a preliminary study. The effect of calcium removal by water softening (<1.0 mg Ca2+.L−1) under real-world drinking water conditions on biofilm formation was studied in a pilot plant with reverse osmosis (RO) membranes and in a laboratory-scale biofilm production unit (BPU) with plasticized polyvinyl chloride ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Reference: Well water treatment for ethanol production

    Europe’s largest ethanol plant in the future requires different water qualities for several processes. A state-of-the-art turn-key water treatment system from ProMinent with reverse osmosis plants and water softener fulfils this challenge. Turning corn into ethanol In Dunaföldvár, south of the Hungarian capital Budapest, the company Pannonia Ethanol Zrt. ...

  • Hard coal as a potential low-cost adsorbent for removal of 4-chlorophenol from water

    The potential use of raw hard coals as low-cost adsorbents for the removal of 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from aqueous solutions was examined. The effect of experimental parameters such as the pH and salt presence was evaluated. The kinetic studies showed the equilibrium time was found to be 2 h for all of the adsorbents and that the adsorption process followed the pseudo-second order kinetic model. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A clinoptilolite-PDMS mixed-matrix membrane for high temperature water softening

    A mixed-matrix membrane composed of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as the continuous phase and clinoptilolite, a naturally occurring zeolite, as the active phase has been used to decrease the conductivity of water by more than 80% across the membrane. Testing was carried out using a cross-flow configuration at temperatures as high as 160 °C using a constant transmembrane pressure of 8 bar. The ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • There Is More Than One Type of Scale in the Fish Restaurant

    Captain D’s is a chain of Fish restaurants in the South East of the USA .. at the last count there were 524. Of course you associate scales with Fish but Captain D’s had another scale problem that was nothing to do with fish and that was in dishwashers and Ice machines due to the presence of hard water. Cutlery and Glassware were coming out of the dishwasher constantly spotted with ...

  • Buy Smarter – what questions should you ask when buying a pH meter?

    When you’re looking to buy a pH meter, whether it’s to start measuring or to replace an existing meter, the range of brands and specifications available is huge. With so many options it can be difficult to know where to start, but taking a little time to choose carefully could save you a lot of time and money overall by making sure the meter you choose is right for ...


    By Camlab Limited

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