Water Supply Articles

  • The Augustan aqueduct of Capua and its historical evolution

    At his own expense Augustus built his own aqueduct, known as Aqua Iulia, for Capua, located in today's Campania region of southern Italy, which was in Roman times, one of the most important civitas of the empire. The course of this aqueduct and of its likely branches, destined for two small towns, Saticula and Calatia, is ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Quadratic head loss approximations for optimisation problems in water supply networks

    This paper presents a novel analysis of the accuracy of quadratic approximations for the Hazen–Williams (HW) head loss formula, which enables the control of constraint violations in optimisation problems for water supply networks. The two smooth polynomial approximations considered here minimise the absolute and relative errors, respectively, from the original non-smooth HW head loss function ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A GIS-based assessment of the Byzantine water supply system of Constantinople

    Despite the extensive archaeological surveys carried out in the last decades, little attention has been paid to one of the longest water supply systems of ancient times – the Byzantine water infrastructure which fed Constantinople from the mid-late fourth century ad. This work uses modern satellite terrain data and Global Positioning System (GPS) data to assess this system and provide an ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A strategic framework for sustainable water resource management in small island nations: the case of Barbados

    Physical scarcity of freshwater is often given as the reason for water shortages, but it is usually its management that can either create or resolve the problem. This will be illustrated by the case of Barbados. The water management issues are typical of many small island states, some of which are particularly vulnerable to water scarcity, especially in the context of climate change. Barbados ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The Byzantine cisterns of Constantinople

    The most unusual aspect of Byzantine Constantinople's water system was the large number of cisterns throughout the city. This research integrates the two most recent in-depth studies of the cisterns to determine that there have been at least 211 cisterns attributed to the Byzantine city. The distribution of the cisterns indicates that the size and number of cisterns constructed reduced over ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water safety planning for small water supply systems: the framework and control measures

    A water safety plan (WSP) is a preventive comprehensive risk assessment and management approach to ensuring the safety of a drinking water supply from source to tap for public health protection. The concept was introduced in the last decade in international guidance documents and has been applied widely across a varied range of water supply systems, particularly, the public water utilities and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Simulation of water scarcity in a leap-forward developing arid region: a system dynamics model of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

    The leap-forward development policy emphasizes water resource scarcity. Given the importance of water resources to an economy, especially in arid areas, this paper explores various management strategies that could be used in the semi-arid region of Xinjiang to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of multifunctional water projects and support sustainable ‘leap-forward’ economic growth. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Salting icy roads affects water supplies

    It’s basic chemistry: Saline water’s freezing point is much lower than fresh water’s, which can help keep ice from forming on roads. To reduce winter accidents, municipal and state workers often apply salt and other compounds to icy roads, because if not accidents start to happen and people end up in need cash in emergency. Unfortunately, this may have unintended consequences ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • In a Future of Extremes, Southeastern States Must Have Water Management Policies

    Introduction Climate change is expected to have an impact on every type of weather phenomenon that occurs on Earth.  The nature and magnitude of the impact varies with the location on the planet and the type of weather in question, and coupled climate-weather models, have different degrees of uncertainty about different types of weather (though these models are dramatically improving ...


    By Climate Institute

  • Singapore a model for effective water management

    Singapore continues to be a model of effective water management as more and more countries begin experiencing water scarcity. To some, the Asian city-state (which occupies an area roughly a quarter the size of Rhode Island) may seem an unlikely beacon for water efficiency. But, to achieve water security and self-sufficiency, residents have been helping leaders meet national water management ...


    By Fluence Corporation

  • How John Snow Changed the Way We Look at Water Supply Systems, Microorganisms, and Infectious Diseases with Data Mapping.

    Hearing the name ‘Jon Snow’ may bring Kit Harington’s face to the forefront of many people’s mind as an important character in ‘Game of Thrones’ but, for water treatment and public health professionals, there is another iconic ‘John Snow’ that may come to mind. Dr. John Snow, an English ...


    By LuminUltra Technologies Ltd.

  • Removing Legionella pneumophila and biofilms from water supply systems using plant essential oils

    Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and lemon (Citrus limonum) essential oils (EOs), supplied as commercial preparations, were investigated on Legionella pneumophila. Results showed that all EOs had antibacterial activity. Lemon oil ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The elimination of open defecation and its adverse health effects: a moral imperative for governments and development professionals

    In 2015 there were 965 million people in the world forced to practise open defecation (OD). The adverse health effects of OD are many: acute effects include infectious intestinal diseases, including diarrheal diseases which are exacerbated by poor water supplies, sanitation and hygiene; adverse pregnancy outcomes; and life-threatening violence against women and girls. Chronic effects include ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Knowledge-based planning of groundwater treatment trains for an efficient drinking water supply system in urban areas

    This paper presents knowledge-based planning of the most appropriate treatment schemes for drinking water supply (DWS) systems, jointly applying statistical tools and experimental tests. Milan City was chosen as the case study, its DWS system being composed of more than 20 DWS units, widespread in the urban area. First, multivariate statistical techniques (factor analysis and cluster analysis) ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - Remote location requires minimum concept

    A leading power supply provider in Austria took on the project of monitoring water levels at a power plant in Montenegro, in two remote locations where no infrastructure is available for installation. On top of that, site visits could only occur every two months, so a device with remote data transmission capabilities was key. Because of these factors, the customer needed an easy solution for ...


    By The OTT Hydromet Group

  • Case study - Dam monitoring in South Africa

    The purpose of the Komati River Basin Development Project is to ensure the availability of water in order to promote economic development in the region. OTT’s part of the project was to supply dataloggers for the monitoring of the river flows into and out of the Maguga and the Driekoppies dams. The technical needs were high-level: Technology designed specifically for environmental ...


    By OTT HydroMet

  • Removing VOCs from Municipal Water Supply - Case Study

    QED E-Z Tray® Air Strippers Removing Volatile Compounds in Cheyenne’s Drinking Water The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) – Omaha District has funded the design and construction of a new groundwater treatment plant in Cheyenne, Wyoming to treat groundwater from the city’s Borie well field.  This important groundwater supply was apparently ...

  • Why Water Management Professionals Can’t Afford to Ignore Innovation

    Innovation in the water management industry is born from the collaboration between water managers, operators, engineers and manufacturers who set out to resolve problems or improve service levels that impact all parts of the supply chain. This is usually the result of early adopters either at the field level or in engineering ...


    By Singer Valve Inc.

  • Reducing the burden of rural water supply through greywater reuse: a case study from northern Malawi

    Greywater reuse has potential for non-potable applications that conserve freshwater resources in water-stressed areas especially in sub-Saharan Africa. The feasibility of reusing greywater for domestic activities in a rural area of Malawi, Africa, was evaluated from microbiological and public acceptance perspectives. Median Escherichia coli concentrations for eight domestic greywater sources ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Risk management for water supply pipes

    In this paper, the risk of water supply systems as a combination of hydraulic analyses (consequence) and failure probability of pipelines based on the actual condition is discussed. On the one hand, a stepwise closing of pipelines calculates the influence on customer's supply which represents the importance of a pipe. On the other hand, based on existing failure statistics, age and material ...


    By IWA Publishing

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