Chemical analysis of drinking water of villages of Sanganer Tehsil, Jaipur District

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Abstract

Due to pressure of human activity, urbanization and industrialization, the groundwater sources are degraded gradually; therefore pure, safe, healthy and odorless drinking water is a matter of deep concern. There are many pollutants in groundwater due to seepage viz. organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals, pesticides, fluorides etc. In Rajasthan state, all 32 districts are affected with high fluoride concentration in groundwater and among these Jaipur ranks second. The drinking water samples were collected in clean polyethylene plastic containers from villages (Code No. 51-100) of Sanganer Tehsil of Jaipur District. The water samples were analysed for pH, Fluoride (F-), Electrical Conductivity (EC), Total Dissolved Solid (TDS), Calcium (Ca), Magnesium (Mg), Total Hardness (TH), Chloride (Cl-), Carbonate (CO3-2), Bicarbonate (HCO3-), Alkalinity, Sodium (Na+), Potassium (K+) and Nitrate (NO3-using standard techniques in laboratory (APHA, 1985). The results revealed that most of the water samples were below or out of limited; according to the WHO standards (1996). The fluoride concentration ranged from 0.4 to 5.4 ppm, where 42% samples showed fluoride less than permissible limit and 48% water samples were within optimum limit i.e. 1-1.5 ppm while 10% samples contained Fluoride higher than permissible limit. pH of all the samples were within limit (6 to 9.2), while EC of all the water samples were out of limit i.e. 300 µmhos/cm. The alkalinity was greater than permissible limit (200 mg/l) in 98% villages and only 2% villages had below than optimum limit. The NO3- concentration was less than permissible limit (45 mg/l) in 64% villages whereas 26% samples showed higher concentration of NO3-. However only 10% samples contain optimum level of nitrate. Moreover Na concentration was greater than permissible (50 to 60 mg/l) limit in 98% water samples whereas K+ concentration was below the optimum (20 mg/l) level in all the samples studied. The results revealed that the quality of drinking water of Sanganer is very poor, which can be used for drinking and cooking only after prior treatment.

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