IWA Publishing

Hybrid membrane process: Performance evaluation of biological PAC


This study investigated the use of biological powdered activated carbon (PAC) for the removal of natural organic matter (NOM) and ammonia from drinking water. The impact of solids retention time (SRT), hydraulic retention time (HRT), PAC diameter and PAC concentration on the process efficiency was evaluated. Five bioreactors were filled with a slurry using two PAC concentrations (5 or 25 g l−1), two PAC mean diameters (25 or 200 μm) and two SRTs (30 or 100–160 days). The bioreactors were operated during 161 days using post-ozonated water as influent. It was determined that the PAC concentration in the bioreactors was a key parameter for the improvement of biological removal. The higher PAC concentration (25 g l−1) was more efficient for the removal of ammonia, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and biodegradable dissolved organic carbon (BDOC). Full nitrification was observed after 90 days in bioreactors with 25 g l− of PAC. The PAC diameter (25 vs. 200 μm) did not significantly influence BDOC, DOC and N-NH4 removals under stable conditions, although nitrification was initiated faster using a 25-μm diameter PAC. Increasing HRT from 15 to 30 minutes improved NOM and ammonia removals. Reducing SRT from 100–161 to 30 days improved DOC removals but reduced BDOC and ammonia removals. The overall performances observed during this study demonstrate the efficiency of biological PAC. Its combination with ultrafiltration in a hybrid membrane process appears promising but the feasibility from an operational standpoint still has to be demonstrated

Keywords: BDOC, biological treatment, bioreactor, hybrid membrane process, nitrification, PAC

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