Keywords: emission modelling, emission factors, road transport, testbench measurements, driving cycles, real-world emissions, instantaneous modelling, vehicle emissions, fuel consumption, pollution emissions
Modelling fuel consumption and pollutant emissions based on real-world driving patterns: the HBEFA approach
Emissions of passenger cars and light-duty vehicles with complex exhaust gas after-treatment are difficult to predict, especially if the prediction is only based on kinematic parameters without vehicle-specific data. A new method for modelling fleet emission factors based on testbench data is presented. It has been used for modern passenger cars and light-duty vehicles (EURO-2 and -3) in the new version 2.1 of the German-Austrian-Swiss Handbook Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA). The new method, not relying on vehicle-specific data, avoids decomposing the measured real-world driving behaviour and all associated uncertainties. Emission factors can be predicted for any given driving pattern which is characterised through kinematic parameters or representative time series of vehicle speed. The methodology determines the linear combination of measured driving patterns that is most representative for the driving pattern whose emissions are to be predicted. The approach is illustrated using testbench real-world measurements of 44 passenger cars of technology stages EURO-2 and -3.