Hydrogen sulfide is a very dangerous, toxic and corrosive gas. It can diffuse into drilling fluid from formations during drilling of gas and oil wells. Hydrogen sulfide should be removed from this fluid to reduce the environmental pollution, protect the health of drilling workers and prevent corrosion of pipelines and equipments. In this research nano zinc oxide with 14-25 nm particle size and 44-56 m2/g specific surface area was synthesized by spray pyrolysis method. The synthesized nanoparticles were used to remove hydrogen sulfide from water based drilling fluid. The efficiency of these nanoparticles in the removal of hydrogen sulfide from drilling mud were evaluated and compared with that of bulk zinc oxide. The obtained results show that synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles are completely able to remove hydrogen sulfide from water based drilling mud in just 15 min., whereas bulk zinc oxide is able to remove 2.5% of hydrogen sulfide in as long as 90 min. under the same operating conditions.