Environmental Technology Publications Limited

Handbook of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agent Decontamination


Chemical and biological warfare agents are threats to the military and civilians alike in both terrorist and conventional warfare scenarios. When materials become contaminated with these agents, they must be decontaminated before they can be removed or reused. This book is a comprehensive overview of the scientific research and development that has been done in chemical and biological agent decontamination technology in the US military. It begins with a section on the background of decontamination, which includes a chronological history of military research, an overview of the US Department of Defense decontamination principles and requirements and a chapter that acts as a primer on chemical and biological warfare agents. The main section on decontamination science covers different types of decontaminants and their applications. Finally, the development of future decontamination systems is discussed.

Print ISSN:
Sep. 2012


Table of Contents
List of Acronyms
The Editors
The Contributors
Part I Background of Decontamination
Chapter 1 A Brief History of Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents and their Decontamination Jeffery K. Smart

1.1 Introduction
1.2 Decontamination Prior to World War
1.3 Decontamination During World War
1.4 Decontamination Between the World Wars
1.5 Decontamination During World War II
1.6 Decontamination and Nerve Agents (1950s–1960s)
1.7 Decontamination and the Environment (1970s–1990s)
1.8 Decontamination in the Global War on Terror (2000s)
1.9 Conclusions
Chapter 2 Introduction to Chemical and Biological Warfare Agents Jennifer Coughlin and Jennifer J. Becker
2.1 Introduction
2.2 Overview of Chemical Warfare Agents
2.3 Overview of Biological Warfare Agents
2.4 Conclusions

Chapter 3 US Department of Defense Decontamination Principles and Requirements Ann Breckenkamp
3.1 Introduction - Overview of US Military Decontamination Practices
3.2 Development of DOD Decontamination Requirements and Program Documentation
3.3 Conclusions
Part II Decontamination Science
Chapter 4 Introduction to Decontamination Science George O. Bizzigotti
4.1 Introduction
4.2 Simulants
4.3 Surfaces to be Decontaminated
4.4 Point-of-Use Formulation Approaches
4.5 Nature of Reaction Products
Chapter 5 Hydrolysis of Chemical Warfare Agents George O. Bizzigotti
5.1 Introduction
5.2 Sulfur Mustard
5.3 Lewisite
5.4 G Agents
5.5 VX
5.6 Conclusions
Appendix: Additional Hydrolysis Data for Soman and VX

Chapter 6 Oxidation of Chemical Warfare Agents in Solution George O. Bizzigotti and Robert G. Nickol
6.1 Introduction
6.2 Chlorine-based Oxidants
6.3 Oxygen-based Oxidants
6.4 Conclusions

Chapter 7 Dehydrohalogenation of Chemical Warfare Agents Aaron Skaggs and William Bell
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Mechanisms of Dehydrohalogenation Reactions
7.3 Methods and Materials to Produce Dehydrohalogenation
7.4 Conclusions

Chapter 8 Solid Decontaminants and their Applications Olga B. Koper, George W. Wagner, and Landa J. Colvin-Marion
8.1 Introduction
8.2 Sorbents (Physical Removal)
8.3 Reactive Solids (Detoxification)
8.4 Conclusions

Chapter 9 Enzymatic Decontamination George O. Bizzigotti and Kimberly L. Sciarretta
9.1 Introduction
9.2 Enzymatic Organophosphate Hydrolysis
9.3 Thermal Stabilization of Enzymes
9.4 Production of Enzymes for Decontamination
9.5 Enzyme Formulation
9.6 Remaining Challenges
9.7 Current and Planned Research on Decontamination Enzymes
9.8 Conclusions

Chapter 10 Biological Decontamination Tony Buhr, Dorothy Canter, and Jeff Kempter
10.1 Introduction
10.2 Sporicidal Efficacy Test Methods for Biological Decontaminants
10.3 Regulatory Requirements for Biological Decontaminants
10.4 2001 Anthrax Attacks
10.5 Conclusions

Chapter 11 Surfactant and Supramolecular Chemistry and their Applications in Chemical Warfare Agent Decontamination George O. Bizzigotti
11.1 Introduction
11.2 Surfactants in Decontamination History
11.3 Surfactant Chemistry: The Basics
11.4 Recent Research on Surfactants Related to Decontamination
11.5 Supramolecular Chemistry
11.6 Conclusions

Chapter 12 Gaseous Decontaminants and their Applications William Bell, Adam Judd, and Jonathan Phillips
12.1 Introduction
12.2 Gaseous Chlorine Dioxide
12.3 Hydrogen Peroxide as a Vapor
12.4 Sensitive Equipment
12.5 Hot Air for Interior Decontamination
12.6 Test Methods
12.7 Safety, Occupational Health, and Regulatory Issues
12.8 Future Needs

Chapter 13 Decontamination by Directed Energy Technologies Robert M. Cutler
13.1 Introduction
13.2 IR Technology
13.3 Photo-oxidation Technology
13.4 UV Technology
13.5 Laser Technology
13.6 Microwave Technology
13.7 Sonication or Ultrasonic Technology
13.8 Electron-beam Technology
13.9 Ionizing Radiation
13.10 Flash Thermal Technology
13.11 Electronic Plasma Technology
13.12 Conclusions

Chapter 14 Reactive Coatings and their Applications in Decontamination William Bell, Jennifer J. Becker, Wallace Ellis, and Martin Rogers
14.1 Introduction
14.2 Test Methods
14.3 Current Coatings
14.4 Materials for Reactive Coatings
14.5 Photocatalysis
14.6 Enzyme-based Systems
14.7 Catalytic Systems
14.8 Antimicrobial Coatings
14.9 Coatings that Indicate the Presence of CWA
14.10 Conclusions

Part III Development of Future Decontamination Systems
Chapter 15 Materials Compatibility Testing Methodology Kenneth Heater, William Bell, Brian France, and Angela Theys
15.1 Introduction
15.2 Materials
15.3 Test Methods
15.4 Decontaminant Exposure
15.5 Conclusions
Chapter 16 Future Revolutionary Concepts for Decontamination Stephen J. Lee and Jennifer J. Becker

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