Natural sources. Aluminum (Al) is the most abundant metallic element in the lithosphere. Industry. Aluminium salts are widely used in water treatment as coagulants to reduce organic matter, colour, turbidity and microorganism levels. Such use may lead to increased concentrations of aluminium in finished water.
Arsenic is found in the atmosphere, in water, soils, sediments and organisms due to releasing by various industrial processes, mining or smelting and agricultural activities as well as a byproduct of coal combustion. Natural sources. Arsenic is found in more than 245 minerals.
SEIBOLD Online-Analyser for Cadmium Cadmium compounds belong to the most hazardous pollutants in the environment. Industry. Cadmium metal is used in the steel industry and in plastics. Cadmium compounds are widely used in batteries. Drinking water. Contamination in drinking-water may also be caused by impurities in the zinc of galvanized pipes and solders and some metal fittings. A guideline value of 0.005 mg/litre was recommended for cadmium in...
Natural sources. Chromium is widely distributed in the Earth’s crust. It can exist in valences of +2 to +6. In general, food appears to be the major source of intake. Industry. Chromium is seldom used alone; as an additive it endows alloys or materials with new properties: strength, hardness, permanence, hygiene, color and resistance to temperature, wear and corrosion.
Sources: Natural sources. Natural sources of cobalt in the environment are soil, dust, seawater, volcanic eruptions and forest fires. Industry. Cobalt is used for for the manufacture of alloys, hard metals and magnets. Drinking water. A guideline value of 0.01 mg/litre was recommended for cobalt in drinking-water. Toxicity. As a constituent of vitamin B12, cobalt is an essential element and, so far, another physiological role of cobalt has not been...
Copper is both an essential nutrient and a drinking-water contaminant Natural sources. Most of the world’s Cu is found and mined in the form of copper sulfides and in combination with other metals that can also form multi-metalsulfide minerals (Fe, Sn, Pb, Se, As, Sb and Ag).
This process analyser was developed and built for industrial waste water and drinking water Industry. The main advantages are the combined measurement in one measurement step and the use of non toxic and non hazardous reagents.
Natural sources. Iron is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust. It is found in natural fresh waters at levels ranging from 0.5 to 50 mg/litre. Industry. Iron is used for various alloys, steel, in galvanisation process and other industrial processes.
This Instrument was developed and built for Drinking Water Industry. Drinking water. Iron may be present in drinking-water as a result of the use of iron coagulants or the corrosion of steel and cast iron pipes during water distribution. There is usually no noticeable taste at iron concentrations below 0.3 mg/litre, and concentrations of 1–3 mg/litre can be acceptable for people drinking anaerobic well water. Manganese is naturally occurring in...
Sources: Natural sources. Inorganic lead rarely exists in its elemental state but is found in the environment in various complexes. Industry. Lead is used principally in the production of lead-acid batteries, solder and alloys; the organolead compounds used extensively as antiknock and lubricating agents in petrol.
Natural sources. Manganese is one of the most abundant metals in the Earth’s crust, usually occurring with iron. Industry. Manganese is used principally in the manufacture of iron and steel alloys, as an oxidant for cleaning, bleaching and disinfection as potassium permanganate and as an ingredient in various products. More recently, it has been used in an organic compound, MMT.
Natural sources. The element nickel is found at low levels 0.0099% in the earth’s crust and exists mainly in the form of sulfide, oxide and silicate minerals. Industry. Nickel is used in alloys (stainless steel), electroplating, foundries, catalysts, welding rods and coinage, and can be found in electronic equipment, construction materials, aerospace equipment and consumer goods such as batteries, paints and ceramics.
Zinc is an essential trace element found in virtually all food and potable water in the form of salts or organic complexes. Natural sources. Zinc species are predominantly determined in the aquatic environment and in soils and sediments. Industry. Zinc is used principally inelectroplating and semiconducting industry.