Legionella Control Articles

  • New York Legionella regulations: are they missing the boat?

    Abstract A large outbreak of Legionnaires’ disease in the Bronx in 2015 prompted NYC to enact law and NYS to propose emergency regulations on the registration and maintenance of cooling towers. This paper describes the fundamental characteristics of point sourced vs. potable water sourced outbreaks and discusses the Bronx outbreak from those perspectives. Ultimately a case is made that ...


    By Evapco Inc.

  • Occurrence of Legionella in showers at recreational facilities

    Critical environments, including water systems in recreational settings, represent an important source of Legionella pneumophila infection in humans. In order to assess the potential risk for legionellosis, we analyzed Legionella contamination of water distribution systems in 36 recreational facilities equipped with swimming pools. One hundred and sixty water samples were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Mortality from selected diseases that can be transmitted by water – United States, 2003–2009

    Diseases spread by water are caused by fecal–oral, contact, inhalation, or other routes, resulting in illnesses affecting multiple body systems. We selected 13 pathogens or syndromes implicated in waterborne disease outbreaks or other well-documented waterborne transmission (acute otitis externa, Campylobacter, Cryptosporidium, Escherichia coli (E. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • What methods of disinfecting water are there?

    The aim behind disinfecting water is to make it safe to drink. As the water experts, NW Solutions will look at some of the different methods to disinfect water and their advantages and disadvantages. To be considered for this list, the disinfectant must: Destroy all types of pathogens, regardless of volume, present in the water Not make the water toxic or render it ...


    By NW Solutions

  • Removing Legionella pneumophila and biofilms from water supply systems using plant essential oils

    Antibacterial and antibiofilm activities of sage (Salvia officinalis), thyme (Thymus vulgaris), peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and lemon (Citrus limonum) essential oils (EOs), supplied as commercial preparations, were investigated on Legionella pneumophila. Results showed that all EOs had antibacterial activity. Lemon oil ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Neuthox removes legionella bacteria and biofilm - Case Study

    Hotel Terme della Sardegna (Sardinia, Italy) saves 12.000 € yearly by having a clean water system Danish Clean Water is the manufacturer of an ECA generator, which produces the disinfectant liquid, NEUTHOX. NEUTHOX is produced through an electrolysis process, where only electrical power, common salt and water is used, and is a clear 100 % biodegradable liquid which ...


    By Danish Clean Water A/S

  • Antibiotic susceptibility of Legionella strains isolated from public water sources in Macau and Guangzhou

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the susceptibility of waterborne strains of Legionella to eight antimicrobials commonly used in legionellosis therapy. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 66 environmental Legionella strains, isolated from fountains and cooling towers of public facilities (hotels, schools, and shopping malls) in Macau and Guangzhou, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • 6 Things You Should Know About Legionella

    Just last August, about 120 people in the South Bronx were infected with Legionnaires’ Disease and 12 people died. At the time, up to 5 cooling towers in the area tested positive for Legionella, a fatal bacteria that grows in warm, damp environments and can spread once contaminated water has become aerosolized and the vapor is inhaled. In this post, we’ll be discussing where ...

  • Strategies for the reduction of Legionella in biological treatment systems

    A community-wide outbreak of Legionnaire's disease occurred in Warstein, Germany, in August 2013. The epidemic strain, Legionella pneumophila Serogruppe 1, was isolated from an industrial wastewater stream entering the municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Wartein, the WWTP itself, the river Wäster and air/water samples from an industrial cooling system 3 km downstream of the WWTP. ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • About TecH2O

    Who is cleaning your cooling tower? With warmer weather on the way, it will soon be time to put cooling towers back into service.  According to legislation passed by New York State effective 11/15/2015, “All owners shall ensure that all cooling towers are cleaned and disinfected when shut down for more than five days” and “any person who performs cleaning and ...


    By TecH2O

  • A Victorian hospital - case study

    Problem: This is an old town hospital built in the mid-1800s. It now has 156 beds and serves as a Community and Mental Health Hospital. The water services on site are a mix of new and very old so, as the recommended temperatures could not be maintained throughout the site, he use of temperature as the only control mechanism for Legionella was ineffective. ...


    By Tarn-Pure Ltd.

  • Golf club - case study

    Problem: This site in the Midlands had no cold water storage. The mains fed to the showers regularly tested positive for Legionella. Solution: A Tarn-Pure™ system was installed on the incoming main and a flushing regime implemented. The number of showers in the changing rooms was reduced to increase regular usage of those remaining. The ...


    By Tarn-Pure Ltd.

  • International sailing centre - case study

    Problem: The high week-end and low weekday use of this facility, plus seasonal variations in water usage, led to an increase in detected legionella counts. A solution was required that would be easy to control, simple to retro-fit and would operate equally effectively in periods of high and low usage. Solution: A Tarn-Pure system was installed ...


    By Tarn-Pure Ltd.

  • NHS Portsmouth - Campbell Surgery

    Location: GP Surgeries Service: Legionella risk assessment by microbiological testing. Project ...

  • NHS Portsmouth - Milton Park Practise

    Location: GP Surgeries Service: Legionella risk assessment by microbiological testing. Project Description: A Legionella risk ...

  • NHS Southampton - Burgess Rd Surgery

    Location: GP Surgeries Service: Legionella risk assessment by microbiological testing. Project Description: ...

  • The presence of opportunistic pathogens, Legionella spp., L. pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium complex, in South Australian reuse water distribution pipelines

    Water reuse has become increasingly important for sustainable water management. Currently, its application is primarily constrained by the potential health risks. Presently there is limited knowledge regarding the presence and fate of opportunistic pathogens along reuse water distribution pipelines. In this study opportunistic human pathogens Legionella spp., L. pneumophila ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sensitivity of Vermamoeba (Hartmannella) vermiformis cysts to conventional disinfectants and protease

    Vermamoeba vermiformis is a free-living amoeba (FLA) widely distributed in the environment, known to colonize hot water networks and to be the reservoir of pathogenic bacteria such as Legionella pneumophila. FLA are partly resistant to biocides, especially in their cyst form. The control of V. vermiformis in hot water networks represents an important health ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Controlling Legionella and Pseudomonas aeruginosa re-growth in therapeutic spas: implementation of physical disinfection treatments, including UV/ultrafiltration, in a respiratory hydrotherapy system

    The study aimed to assess the efficacy of an integrated water safety plan (WSP) in controlling Legionella re-growth in a respiratory hydrotherapy system located in a spa centre, supplied with sulphurous water, which was initially colonized by Legionella pneumophila. Heterotrophic plate counts, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Legionella spp. were detected in water ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Legionella, water treatment and energy saving

    We can help improve health and safety and increase energy reduction. At the moment you probably keep water temperatures above 60°C and you probably undertake regular chemical or thermal water system treatments and shower head treatments, all to prevent the growth of Legionella in your water system. There are several reasons to do this including legal, safety, ...


    By Aquadron

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