Water Softening Systems provide the removal of hardness in water caused by calcium and magnesium ions. Also divalent metal ions like iron, mangan, zinc and lead causes hardness in water but these are not found in water substantially. Hardness is divided into two as temporary hardness and permanent hardness.
- Soap consumptions increase in hard waters as hard waters do not foam easily. Foaming occurs when Calcium and magnesium ions in the water are replaced with the sodium and potassium ions and spent wholly.
- Hard water is not suitable in terms of heating technique. Heating can cause limestone formation and narrow the pipes’ section in a short time especially in hot water systems such as Steam Boilers.
- In textile industry if hard waters are used, hardness in water makes it difficult to penetrate the paint into the tissues. Most common method for removing hardness in water is ion exchanging.
The principle of water softening system or device is removing the calcium and magnesium ions from the water. The system contains negative loaded ions formed of giant molecules that do not dissolve in water, balanced with sodium. These formations with giant molecules are called resin. While water softening system passes across these resins containing negative ions, they hold calcium instead of sodium. In another saying, ions of calcium and sodium change their places. Calcium in water decreases and water gets softer while sodium amount in water increases which means water doesn’t get purified and the conductivity doesn’t change, even increases. The resin in the Water Softening System is regenerated by treatment salt “NaCl”.