- In Situ Geochemical Stabilization (ISGS) Technology



In Situ Geochemical Stabilization (ISGS™) technology utilizes a permanganate-based solution to geochemically stabilize dense non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPL) in the aquifer. Permanganate and other proprietary reagents are mixed into an aqueous solution that can be injected into an aquifer either through existing wells or direct push technology. As the solution migrates through the treatment area it oxidizes contaminants yielding partial mass removal. The ISGS technology also reacts with contaminants in the treated area thereby coating NAPL surfaces with stable mineral precipitates that reduce mass flux.

The sound science of ISGS In the presence of an organic compound (R), permanganate reacts to yield an oxidized intermediate, carbon dioxide, and manganese dioxide:

R + MnO4 ----> MnO2 + CO2 or ROx

Proprietary additives are added to the solution to form mineral “crusts” or “shells” that are similar to birnessite (Na0.3Ca0.1K0.1)(Mn4+,Mn3+)2O4 · 1.5 H2O, which is an oxide mineral of manganese along with calcium, potassium and sodium Field Data from the first field application of an early ISGS formulation at the Kopper’s Inc. Superfund Site in Denver, CO are summarized on the following tables.

When released into the environment, chlorinated solvents, coal tar, creosote and heavy crude oil are frequently present as DNAPL and represent a long-term secondary source of contamination. Physical removal or in situ remediation of DNAPL is not always practicable due to the depth of contamination, aquifer geology or the presence of physical surface structures. In these cases hydraulic containment (e.g., long-term pump-and-treat) or in situ stabilization is the only viable remedial action. ISGS technology can represent a more effective and costefficient alternative to conventional cement stabilization since the aqueous solution can be injected into an aquifer where it will follow preferred flow paths.

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