BREEZE Software, Data and Services / Trinity Consultants

- Fire/Risk

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BREEZE LFG Fire/Risk analyzes the potential risks associated with release of liquefied fuel gas (LFG) and liquefied natural gas (LNG) from a vessel or pipeline failure as required for regulatory compliance and safety operations. This product also enables the predication of the vaporization rate and downwind vapor concentrations for explosion hazards and thermal radiation for the resulting fires. LFG Fire/Risk contains Source5, DEGADIS, and fire models, as well as an intuitive interface that guides users through entering the required and optional inputs.

Key Features

  • Model multiple release scenarios and release durations
  • Import AutoCAD .DXF, Windows® .BMP files, and .JPG files
  • Visualize model results as 2D contour plots, charts, and text summary reports
  • Develop “what-if” scenarios for scenario management involving specific meteorological conditions and source parameters
  • Compatible with Microsoft Excel® cut/paste options
  • Incorporates GIS interface

BREEZE LFG Fire/Risk is easy to use and quick to run. The intuitive interface guides the user through entering required and optional inputs and selecting the appropriate algorithms. With BREEZE LFG Fire/Risk, EH&S professionals can efficiently analyze the risks from a vessel or pipeline failure as required for regulatory compliance and safe operations. By incorporating a variety of sophisticated models – Source5 Model, DEGADIS Model, and Fire Models – users have more versatility and power!

Features

  • Model multiple release scenarios and release durations
  • Import AutoCAD .DXF, Windows® .BMP files, and .JPG files
  • Visualize model results as 2D contour plots, charts, and text summary reports
  • Develop “what-if” scenarios for scenario management involving specific meteorological conditions and source parameters
  • Compatible with Microsoft Excel® cut/paste options
  • Incorporates GIS interface

Source5 Model Features

  • Predicts the vaporization rate from instantaneous spills and continuous leaks over land or water
  • Simulates five different release types: confined instantaneous land spills, confined continuous land spills, unconfined instantaneous land spills, unconfined continuous water spills, unconfined instantaneous water spills
  • Produces results that are available in an easy-to-read report
  • Produces output that integrates seamlessly into DEGADIS

DEGADIS Model Features

  • Models heavier-than-air gaseous releases
  • Use to model emergency response planning scenarios
  • Use to model scenarios for industrial chemicals and highly-toxic chemicals
  • Use to model accidental release scenarios
  • Use to model scenarios for process industries that use chlorine, ammonia, LNG, and other compressed gases or cryogenic liquids
  • Use to model continuous release, finite duration, and transient release scenarios
  • Ability to employ the Vertical Jet Release Method or the Liquid Spill Release Method

Confined Pool Fire Model Features

  • Models a fire that occurs when liquid is ignited in a confined area such as a dike or a tank
  • Calculates the distance to various radiation levels specified by the user
  • Allows for the calculation of the dynamic temperature rise of a nearby target

Unconfined Pool Fire Model Features

  • Models a fire that occurs when an unconfined spreading pool of liquefied fuel gas ignites
  • Calculates the distance to various radiation levels specified by the user
  • Calculates the radiation flux as a function of time at a given distance as the pool spreads

Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) Model Features

  • Calculates the distance to various radiation dose levels
  • Calculates the distance to radiation doses specified by the user
  • Calculates the total amount of thermal radiation exposure over a given

Vertical Jet Fire Model Features

  • Predicts the visible length, approximate diameter, and the lift-off distance of vertical gaseous jet flames resulting from high-pressure pipeline accidents in which the escaping flammable gas is ignited
  • Calculates the thermal radiation flux levels at up to ten user-specified distances
  • Calculates the radiation at various specified distances from the center of the jet
  • Calculates the distance to various specified radiation levels

Source5 Model

Source5 is a LNG-specific model developed by the Gas Technology Institute that predicts the vaporization rate from instantaneous spills and continuous leaks over land or water. This model was developed to specifically handle the complicated behavior of LNG as it vaporizes and forms a dense cloud. With the Source5 model, users will have the ability to choose from a variety of release types when predicting the evaporation rate and spreading of an evaporating LNG release.

Multiple Release Types

The Source5 Model is used for predicting the vaporization rate from instantaneous spills and continuous leaks over land or water. The user has the ability to customize model characteristics by choosing from the five different release types available for simulation: confined instantaneous land spills; confined continuous land spills; unconfined instantaneous land spills; unconfined continuous water spills; and unconfined instantaneous water spills.

The output results are easy to read and flow seamlessly into the DEGADIS Model without manually typing results into DEGADIS. This seamless integration of Source5 output into DEGADIS reduces errors and reduces the time required to do the job.

When selecting the Source5 model, users are prompted to identify the source characteristics, details, and LNG properties in the dialog box.

For the source details in Source5, the floor properties, tank specification, shape of the dike, and dike dimension are required.

Lastly, users are requested to describe the LNG properties by selecting Pure methane or User specified LNG.

DEGADIS is an EPA approved dense-gas model that predicts downwind vapor concentrations for explosion hazards, developed specifically to model heavier-than-air gaseous releases. A cloud from a dense gas release behaves very differently than a plume from a lighter-than-air release. Since the gas is heavier than air, the cloud characteristics are primarily gravity-driven. Negative buoyancy and stable density stratification are among the factors that prevent the application of a Gaussian dispersion model from accurately simulating a dense gas release.

DEGADIS can model a mixture of release type and duration scenarios:

  • Ground-level release type: continuous, finite, and transient durations
  • Vertical Jet release type: continuous and finite durations
  • Evaporating liquid spill release type: continuous, finite, and instantaneous durations

Release Durations

  • Continuous Release: A continuous release is a steady-state release of dense gas at a constant rate into the atmosphere over a long period of time. As a rule, any release that is greater than 1,000 minutes is modeled as a continuous release. The output from modeling a steady-state release is concentration estimates at various downwind distances determined by the model.
  • Finite Duration: A finite duration release is a steady-state release of dense gas at a constant rate into the atmosphere over a short period of time. As a rule, any release that occurs over a period of less than 1,000 minutes is modeled as a finite duration release. Finite duration model output is organized either by time or distance, depending on which parameter is of greater interest.
  • Transient Release: A transient release varies over time; for example, if a liquid pool boils off or a container of gas depressurizes. As the pool decreases in size, the emission rate and radius change. Other transient releases include near-instantaneous releases such as container ruptures. Transient modeling output is organized either by time or distance, depending on which parameter is of most interest.

Release Method

  • Vertical Jet Release: A jet release is a vertical release of a dense gas or aerosol. The simulation uses the Ooms mathematical model for a dense gas jet plume. The jet plume model requires that the jet be vertical, with a definable exit velocity. If the jet release is such that the plume centerline does not reach the ground before dispersing, the jet plume model is run alone. If this is unclear, or if the plume centerline does reach the ground, the jet plume model is run in conjunction with the regular DEGADIS model as either a continuous or finite duration release.
  • Liquid Spill: A liquid spill is the release of a chemical in its liquid state. The liquid is assumed to form a pool at ground level, with the evaporation rate calculated using one of three different evaporation models incorporated into DEGADIS. The results from the evaporation model are run in the DEGADIS model as either a continuous or finite duration release.

A graph of the centerline concentration at the height of interest, which users can generate after successfully running the DEGADIS model.

For plotting results on the base map, users can specify the concentration contours and output file.

BREEZE LFG Fire/Risk provides users with four fire models to choose from for their model run; Confined Pool Fire, Unconfined Pool Fire, BLEVE, and Vertical Jet Fire. These fire models calculate the thermal radiation flux associated with a potential explosion and fire, as well as many other parameters, so users can efficiently analyze the potential risks associated with a specific scenario.

Users have the ability to select between the four fire models by simply clicking the fire model icon on the user-friendly interface.

Confined Pool Fire

Originally developed for the Gas Research Institute (GRI) to model fires that occur when liquid is ignited in a confined area, such as a dike or a tank. The dike may be circular or rectangular. The model calculates the distance to various radiation levels specified by the user and also allows for the calculation of the dynamic temperature rise of a nearby target.

Unconfined Pool Fire

Originally developed for the GRI to model fires that occur when an unconfined spreading pool of liquefied fuel gas ignites. The model calculates the distance to various radiation levels specified by the user (e.g, the 5 kW/m2 level specified by the U.S. EPA in the 112(r) RMP regulations, or the radiant flux levels specified in the U.S. federal standard 49 CFR 193.2057 for LNG facilities) and calculates the radiation flux as a function of time at a given distance as the pool spreads.

BLEVE

Originally developed by the U.S. EPA, the Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapor Explosion (BLEVE) thermal radiation model calculates the thermal radiation level produced by the fire, including the radius within which a specified radiation level will be exceeded. Additionally, the BLEVE model calculates the total amount of thermal radiation exposure over a given time.

Vertical Jet Fire

Originally developed by the GRI to model fires that may result from the leak or rupture of a pipeline containing a compressed or liquefied gas under pressure. The model calculates the distance to various radiation levels specified by the user and can calculate the dimensions of a high velocity jet flame ensuing from a ruptured pipeline.

Hardware
  • Intel or AMD processor, 32 bit. 500-megahertz (Mhz) or higher
  • 256 megabytes (MB) RAM, 512 MB RAM recommended
  • 100 (MB) available disk space for the application install
  • 1024 x 768 minimum display resolution
  • Mouse or other pointing device
Software
  • Windows Vista (32-bit only), Windows 7 (32-bit only), Windows 8 (32-bit only), Windows Server 2003 (32-bit only), or Windows Server 2008 (32-bit, RTM only)
Additional Requirements
  • None

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