Soil Investigation Articles

  • Mineral sources of Calcium and Phosphorus in soils of the Northeastern United States

    Apatite is ubiquitous in igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, although usually in trace amounts. Apatite is the primary source of P and, due to its relatively rapid dissolution rate, can be an important Ca source in noncarbonate soils. We investigated the distribution of apatite using a 1 mol L–1 HNO3 extraction of glacial till soils at 31 sites across the northeastern United States. ...

  • A Review of Instrumentation for Measuring Small Strains During Triaxial Testing of Soil Specimens

    Conventional procedures for determining deformations during triaxial tests are based on measurements made externally to the cell. This practice is inadequate, particularly if the small strain stiffness of the soil is being investigated, because errors are introduced which limit the accuracy and resolution of the measurements. The errors can only be eliminated if axial strains are determined ...


    By ASTM International

  • Improvements to a Stress-Path Triaxial Cell

    Stress-path triaxial cells are presently used all over the world. Accurate use of this type of apparatus allows an investigation into the mechanical behavior of soils with regard to a wide range of stress and strain. A correct evaluation of small-strain stiffness requires an accurate definition of the compliance curve of the apparatus and the possibility of performing tests in stress-controlled ...


    By ASTM International

  • A Direct Simple Shear Device for Measuring Small-Strain Behavior

    A simple shear device named the double specimen direct simple shear (DSDSS) device was designed to investigate static and cyclic properties of soils at small strains, such as cyclic stress-strain loops, maximum shear modulus, Gmax, secant shear modulus, Gs, and the equivalent viscous damping ratio, ?. Cyclic shear strains between 5 × 10-4 and 2 × 10-2% were successfully applied and measured. Such ...


    By ASTM International

  • Investigation of the Strain-Softening Behavior of Granular Soils with a New Multiaxial Cell

    The special considerations leading to the design of a new multiaxial cell used for strain-softening studies are presented. This cell has the special features of being able to accommodate large strain without introducing boundary imperfections, allowing observation of shear band formation, and permitting strain path control. The observed strain-softening behavior of a quartz sand under multiaxial ...


    By ASTM International

  • Stress Nonuniformities in Hollow Cylinder Torsional Specimens

    Stress nonuniformities across the wall of hollow cylindrical torsional shear (HCT) specimens under generalized stress conditions are assessed taking into account the nonlinearity in soil behavior. The domain of stress space that results in acceptable levels of nonuniformities is thus delineated for a given specimen geometry. It is shown that previous analyses assuming linear elastic soil grossly ...


    By ASTM International

  • Direct and Simple Shear Testing of Two Canadian Sensitive Clays

    Several series of consolidated undrained direct translatory shear (DTS) and direct simple shear (DSS) tests have been performed on two sensitive clays of eastern Canada. Before shearing, the specimens were consolidated to pressures varying between 20 and 350 kPa. The investigation was performed with the aim of determining both the anisotropic nature and the effect of the consolidation pressure ...


    By ASTM International

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