Thermal mass flow meters provide excellent measurement capabilities in dry gas flows. They have proven durability, accuracy, and repeatability. However, thermal flow meters are sensitive to liquid droplets in a wet gas stream. For a thermal flow meter to work accurately in a condensing gas environment, the probe must be placed far enough downstream so that the entrained water has condensed onto the pipe wall. In a very wet environment, any condensing liquid (commonly referred to as mist or fog) contacting the sensor probes causes a high reading due to the liquid vaporizing on the heated portion of the sensor. As a result of this deficiency, measurements with conventional thermal meters are largely ignored when moisture levels rise because there is no confidence that the measurements are true.
By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).
The most important parameters in Water/Steam Cycles such as Cation conductivity, dissolved oxygen and pH are available as pre-assembled and factory tested units. Dedicated analyzers for sodium, silica, phosphate and hydrazine are also factory tested and calibrated for immediate operation.
By SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG based in Hinwil, SWITZERLAND.
Growing populations – about 80 million every year – and industrializing countries create huge needs for electrical energy. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) the global energy demand will increase by about 65% by 2035. A major fraction of the required energy will continue to be provided by thermal – mainly fossil fuel-fired and nuclear – power plants. "Renewable" energy sources such as photovoltaics (PV) will be another backbone of our energy supply. Putting renewable energy on the grid requires powerful energy storage and conversion devices, such as supercapacitors, batteries, or fuel cells.
By Metrohm AG based in Herisau, SWITZERLAND.
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