The mercury concentration in crude oil and petroleum products can vary in a wide range of less than 0.1 ppb to dozens ppm. Direct mercury determination in crude oil and petroleum products at the range above 5 ppb is covered by ASTM D7622-10(2015) "Standard test method for total mercury in crude oil using combustion and direct cold vapor atomic absorption method with Zeeman background correction". Mercury determination in naphtha and light petroleum products (condensate, gasoline and diesel fuel) at a level below 5 ppb is a vital problem for the oil refining and petrochemical industry. Complex organic matrix impedes conventional quantitative analysis for mercury.
By Lumex Instruments Group based in Mission, BRITISH COLUMBIA (CANADA).
According to the International Committee on Illumination CIE recommendations, luminance should be monitored as the luminance contained within in a conical field of view, subtending an angle of 20º. It is recommended that a luminance photometer is mounted in the tunnel approach road approximately 120 - 200 metres from the portal, depending on the approach speed of the vehicles and their stopping distance. The purpose of monitoring the luminance at the portal is to adjust the level of light intensity inside the road tunnel to the light intensity outside so that drivers do not have to adjust their eyes quickly or become affected by the “black hole” effect where they decelerate rapidly and become a hazard to other road users.
By Codel International Ltd based in Bakewell, UNITED KINGDOM.
Thermal mass flow meters provide excellent measurement capabilities in dry gas flows. They have proven durability, accuracy, and repeatability. However, thermal flow meters are sensitive to liquid droplets in a wet gas stream. For a thermal flow meter to work accurately in a condensing gas environment, the probe must be placed far enough downstream so that the entrained water has condensed onto the pipe wall. In a very wet environment, any condensing liquid (commonly referred to as mist or fog) contacting the sensor probes causes a high reading due to the liquid vaporizing on the heated portion of the sensor. As a result of this deficiency, measurements with conventional thermal meters are largely ignored when moisture levels rise because there is no confidence that the measurements are true.
By Kurz Instruments, Inc. based in Monterey, CALIFORNIA (USA).
The most important parameters in Water/Steam Cycles such as Cation conductivity, dissolved oxygen and pH are available as pre-assembled and factory tested units. Dedicated analyzers for sodium, silica, phosphate and hydrazine are also factory tested and calibrated for immediate operation.
By SWAN Analytische Instrumente AG based in Hinwil, SWITZERLAND.
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