Biofilm effect on Cooling Towers for Industrial Purpose - Air and Climate
Cooling towers are used widely in the industry for cooling down a process, there exist many version or types of cooling towers, and each designed with its advantages for the process. The generic term "cooling tower" is used to describe both direct (open circuit) and indirect (closed circuit) heat rejection equipment. While most think of a "cooling tower" as an open direct contact heat rejection device, the indirect cooling tower, sometimes referred to as a "closed circuit cooling tower" is nonetheless also a cooling tower. In this case it will be focused on open circuit cooling towers where biofilm is created because of direct contact of the air and water.
In cooling towers 3 major issues has to be taken into account to withstand an efficiency and lifetime reduction
- Growth of Biofilm
- Scaling and fouling
I this abstract it will be focus on biofilm because of its major impact on the efficiency of cooling towers.
Biofilm is a major concern in cooling towers because of the reduction of efficiency and bacteria growth as Legionella. The water system provide a favorable environment for the growth of microorganisms. The microorganism growth on the wetted surfaces who cause formation of biofilms. The reason why biofilm is an important matter in cooling towers is the fact, that it will create fouling, this will affect the performance of the equipment, and will lead to metal corrosion. The harbored microorganism and the following fouling will take place at any surface in the whole construction system, from tower over pipe line and the refrigeration system e.g. with build in Chiller or heat exchanger.