Keywords: electricity costs, nuclear power, nuclear energy, fossil fuel, radioactive waste, nuclear waste, carbon dioxide, CO2, carbon capture and storage, CCS, comparative assessment, public acceptance, governance, waste disposal facilities, carbon storage, clean energy
Comparative assessment of ultimate disposal facilities for carbon dioxide and radioactive waste: overview and synthesis
The world community is seeking to move towards cleaner sources of energy for electricity generation to protect the environment. In addition to renewables, nuclear power and fossil fuel plants with carbon dioxide (CO2) capture and storage (CCS) are potential clean energy sources, if their wastes, i.e., radioactive material and CO2, are disposed of in an environmentally benign manner. Deep geological formations are considered for both types of waste as potential future disposal options. In a joint study involving nine countries with different electricity generating portfolios, a comparative assessment of options for the storage CO2 and disposal of radioactive waste (RW) has been performed. The results highlight new knowledge that has emerged in the related areas, as well as the differences and similarities between these disposal options. The findings and conclusions of the comparative assessment provide guidance for those who plan to undertake similar studies or plan to establish regional collaborative strategies.