IWA Publishing

DBPs in a chlorinated indoor swimming pool: occurrences and modeling

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Courtesy of IWA Publishing

Swimming pool water contains higher chlorine residual and is maintained at a higher temperature than tap water. It constitutes environments with high levels of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in water and air due to continuous disinfection and constant organic loading from the bathers. Exposure to DBPs is inevitable for any bather or trainer while such exposure can have cancer and non-cancer risks to humans. In this study, DBPs in tap water (S1) and water and air from a chlorinated indoor swimming pool before (S2) and after swimming (S3) were measured. Trihalomethanes (THMs) in S2 and S3 were 3.0–6.8 and 4.0–10.3 times the THMs in S1, respectively; and haloacetic acids (HAAs) in S2 and S3 were 2.3–4.3 and 2.5–5.5 times the HAAs in S1, respectively. THMs in air before swimming (S2-A) and after swimming (S3-A) were 60.4 and 77.5 μg/m3, respectively. Models were developed for predicting dissolved organic carbon, THMs and HAAs in swimming pools. The models showed good to excellent performance (R2 = 0.70–0.87). The model validation studies showed moderate to good performance (r = 0.73–0.83). The models might be useful in predicting DBP exposure in swimming pools.

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