The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) was created in response to the need for additional Federal initiatives to collect and disseminate energy-related information, and to evaluate and analyze this information. These needs were revealed as the United States sought to respond to the energy crises of the 1970s. The first law to address these needs was the Federal Energy Administration Act of 1974 and, over the years, many subsequent laws have contributed to EIA's evolution and growth.
1974: Federal Energy Administration (FEA) Act (P.L. 93-275, 15 USC 761)
Created the FEA and mandated it to collect, assemble, evaluate, and analyze energy information; provide energy information and projections to the Federal Government, State Governments, and the public; and provide Congress with an annual report summarizing these activities. It also provided FEA with data collection enforcement authority for gathering data from energy producing and consuming firms.
1976: Energy Conservation and Production Act (P.L. 94-385, 15 USC 790)
Established within the FEA, the Office of Energy Information and Analysis (which later became the Energy Information Administration (EIA)). This office was to (1) operate a comprehensive National Energy Information System, (2) possess expertise in energy analysis and forecasting, (3) be subject to performance audits by a Professional Audit Review Team, (4) coordinate energy information activities with Federal agencies, (5) promptly provide upon request any energy information to any duly established committee of Congress, and (6) make periodic reports on the energy situation and trends to the Congress and the public.
1977: Department of Energy (DOE) Organization Act (P.L. 95-91, 42 USC 7135)
Established EIA as the single Federal Government authority for energy information. Gave EIA independence from the rest of DOE with respect to data collection, and from the whole Government with respect to the content of EIA reports. Incorporated all the provisions of the Office of Energy Information and Analysis. Established an annual survey to gather and report detailed energy industry financial data.
1992: Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, 42 USC 13385)
Required EIA to expand its data gathering and analysis in several areas, including energy consumption, alternative fuels and alternatively-fueled vehicles, greenhouse gas emissions, fossil fuel transportation rates and distribution patterns, electricity production from renewable energy sources, and foreign purchases and imports of uranium.
2005: Energy Policy Act of 2005 (P.L. 109-58, 42 USC 15801 note)
Required EIA to undertake several new activities in the renewable fuels area, including: an inventory of renewable fuels available for consumers and a projection of future inventories; a study of renewable fuel blending; and a monthly survey on renewable fuels production, blending, importation, demand, and prices.
2007: Energy Independence and Security Act (P.L. 110-140, 42 USC 17001)
Required EIA to prepare a 5-year plan to enhance the quality and scope of its data collection program, and also to prepare an assessment of State-level data needs and a plan to address those needs. Authorized funds to carry out both plans. Required EIA to prepare a semi-annual analysis of planned refinery outages and their impact on petroleum product supply and price.
The U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA) is the statistical and analytical agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. EIA collects, analyzes, and disseminates independent and impartial energy information to promote sound policymaking, efficient markets, and public understanding of energy and its interaction with the economy and the environment. EIA is the nation's premier source of energy information and, by law, its data, analyses, and forecasts are independent of approval by any other officer or employee of the U.S. Government.
EIA conducts a comprehensive data collection program that covers the full spectrum of energy sources, end uses, and energy flows. EIA also prepares informative energy analyses, monthly short-term forecasts of energy market trends, and long-term U.S. and international energy outlooks. EIA disseminates its data, analyses, and other products primarily through its website and customer contact center.
The Department of Energy Organization Act of 1977 established EIA as the primary federal government authority on energy statistics and analysis, building upon systems and organizations first established in 1974 following the oil market disruption of 1973. Located in Washington, DC, EIA is an organization of about 370 federal employees, with an annual budget in Fiscal Year 2012 of $105 million.