Continental Research and Engineering, LLC (CR&E)

Research and Development Services


process analysis, development and optimization.  This includes detailed system modeling incorporating reaction thermodynamics and kinetics.  Reactor designs and system configurations are produced for a wide range of processes operating under varying constraints.  Continental Research and Engineering, LLC (CR&E) generates recommendations and provides solutions from this research to support and optimize plant’s performance.  CR&E's scientists and engineers perform research to support the field-engineering portion of the company in order to optimize plant operations.  After researching various topics, CR&E completes laboratory testing and analysis.  CR&E has extensive experience in dealing with the combustion process and applying the knowledge to facility operations.

CR&E research also includes working on documentation review and modifications.  CR&E develops information used as background documents to support new waste process streams, rule making, litigation, and training.  We review documents for submittal to the regulatory agencies per our Quality Management Program.

CR&E has been applying its plasma knowledge to research into areas where the unique properties of plasma can be utilized for the treatment of waste streams.  This research has resulted in CR&E being granted U.S. Patent No. US 6,969,494 B2, Patent No. US 2006/0067862 A1 and Patent No. US 2005/0061146 A1 titled “Plasma Based Trace Metal Removal Apparatus and Method”.

The 1990 amendments to the Clean Air Act listed eleven metals as hazardous air pollutants.  The volatile metals are: high volatile {mercury}, semi-volatile {lead and cadmium}, and low volatile {arsenic, beryllium, and chromium}.  The remaining five metals are considered to be particulate matter. 

Mercury removal from an effluent gas stream can be problematic, especially when the mercury is in an elemental form {HgO}.  Knowing this, CR&E developed a method to utilize the ability of a plasma to generate reactive species using chlorine and oxygen to target elemental mercury.  The elemental mercury is converted into a mercury oxy-chloride form that subsequently can be removed from the gas stream by conventional gas scrubbing equipment.

Briefly, the invention involves contacting a gas stream containing target volatile metals such as mercury, as well as semi-volatile metals and other trace compounds, with reactive chemical species generated by a non-thermal plasma system.  The target metals are chemically converted into a form that can be removed by conventional particulate removal equipment or by a wet scrubber system.  The process is most applicable to the treatment of flue gas generated by incinerators, boilers, combustors, utilities, refineries, smelters, and other types of manufacturing facilities.

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