Hydrography Articles

  • Major Hydrographic Survey Using Valeport rapidSV Profiler - Case Study

    A major Hydrographic Survey in the Bering Sea off northwestern Alaska has just been successfully completed using the Teledyne/Oceanscience rapidCAST profiling system using the Valeport rapidSV profiler. As reported in Hydro-International recently (see full article), the ...


    By Valeport Ltd

  • Insights gained from four component hydrograph separation

    Traditional hydrograph separation techniques split an observed storm hydrograph into two main components representing ‘storm runoff’ and ‘baseflow’. In this paper a new separation technique is described which makes an initial split into two main components, quickflow and slowflow, which are each then subsequently split into two further subcomponents. The resulting procedure is termed the ‘four ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Pre-event water contributions to runoff events of different magnitude in pre-alpine headwaters

    Precipitation and catchment characteristics of mountainous headwaters can vary largely within short distances. It remains unclear how these two factors determine the contribution of event water and pre-event water to stormflow. We investigated this in five neighboring headwaters with high annual precipitation amounts (>2,000 mm y−1) in a steep pre-alpine region in Switzerland. Rainfall and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A generalized concentration curve (GCC) method for storm flow hydrograph prediction in a conceptual linear reservoir-channel cascade

    The unit hydrograph (UH) is a hydrological tool that represents the unit response of a watershed to a unit input of rainfall. UH models based on lumped reservoir and channel conceptual cascade assume that rainfall is evenly distributed, thus limiting the use of UHs to relatively small watersheds of less than around 500 km2 in area. In this paper, a new hydrograph prediction method, named the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Contribution of glacial melt to river runoff as determined by stable isotopes at the source region of the Yangtze River, China

    The primary objective of this study was to quantify the contribution of glacial melt to total runoff in the Gaerqu River catchment, which is located in the source region of the Yangtze River, China. The isotope hydrograph separation method was used to separate glacier melt runoff from total runoff in the catchment. The degree-day method was used to investigate temporal variations in glacial ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Streamflow prediction in ungauged basins through geomorphology-based hydrograph transposition

    Geomorphology-based rainfall–runoff models are particularly helpful for predicting hydrology in ungauged basins. The robustness, generality and flexibility of the modelling approach make it able to deal with a wide variety of processes, events and scales. It allows a rainfall–runoff transfer function to be estimated for any basin without needing to measure discharge. The aim of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparison of Different Hydrograph Routing Techniques in XPSTORM Modelling Software

    Abstract - A variety of routing techniques are available to develop surface runoff hydrographs from rainfall. The selection of runoff routing method is very vital as it is directly related to the type of watershed and the required degree of accuracy. There are different modelling softwares available to explore the rainfall-runoff process in urban areas. XPSTORM, a link-node based, integrated ...


    By XP Solutions

  • Obstacle marks as palaeohydraulic indicators of Pleistocene megafloods

    Pleistocene megafloods generated several large-scale obstacle marks that could not be interpreted hydraulically with the present knowledge of submerged obstacles. Thus, flume and field data of classical obstacle marks, characterised by a frontal scour hole and an adjacent depositional ridge, are analysed to estimate flow velocities from obstacle mark geometry, especially scour depths, length, ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Derived flood frequency distribution and sensitivity analysis to variations in model parameters

    In this paper we propose a new derived flood frequency distribution approach using the Nash instantaneous unit hydrograph (IUH) as the catchment's response model and analyze the sensitivity of flood frequency distributions to variations in the model parameters. We analyzed the effect of applying the Nash IUH to estimate peak flows in two basins in the province of Buenos Aires (Argentina). For the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The solution to DEM resolution effects and parameter inconsistency by using scale-invariant TOPMODEL

    The parameter calibration of TOPMODEL is influenced by digital elevation model (DEM) resolution because of the utilization of scale-dependent topographic index representing hydrologic similarity. The downscaled DEM from the coarse-resolution DEM and the resolution factor are applied to remove the DEM scale effects on the upslope area. Meanwhile, a fractal method is introduced as an approach to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Evaluation of approaches for estimation of rainfall and the unit hydrograph

    The impact of rainfall interpolation techniques and unit hydrograph estimation has been explored for four gauged locations in the Brahmani basin in east India. The use of ground-based and satellite-based data, coupled with testing two interpolation techniques (Thiessen polygon and inverse distance weighting), can yield improved rainfall estimates and fits to observed flows. Due to the presence of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Case study - SEAWATCH Peru

    The El Niño phenomenon, of which much has been spoken over the last few years will now be monitored by "El Instituto del Mar del Perú" (IMARPE) and the Hydrographic Service of the Peruvian Navy with the help of Fugro OCEANOR's technology. Over the last few years, many articles have been written by the media concerning EL Niño. El Niño marks the arrival of warmer water ...


    By Fugro OCEANOR AS

  • Exponential data fitting applied to infiltration, hydrograph separation, and variogram fitting

    Most lumped rainfall-runoff models separate the interflow and groundwater components from the measured runoff hydrograph in an attempt to model these as hydrologic reservoir units. Similarly, rainfall losses due to infiltration as well as other abstractions are separated from the measured rainfall hyetograph, which are then used as inputs to the various hydrologic reservoir units. This data ...


    By Springer

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