The migration of magma towards the surface in a volcano is usually accompanied by the release of gas that was previously dissolved in the magma itself. In an open conduit volcano, most of the gas escapes through the main conduits of the volcano and then through the craters. However, a significant proportion (approximately 10%) of the total quantity of gas can escape laterally through faults and fractures that are normally present in the flanks of a volcano. Therefore, increases in the amount of gas emitted usually indicate the initial stages of magmatic migration towards the surface.
By ETG Risorse e Tecnologia S.r.l. based in Montiglio, ITALY.
Closed chamber gas flux measurements can be made with Protea FTIR analysers to allow researchers in the field of atmospheric gas analysis from agricultural and livestock to measure evolved gases such as N2O, CO2, CO, NH3, and CH4. Nitrous oxide (N2O) and Methane (CH4) emissions from soil, plant and livestock are especially important gases to measure, given their high potential as greenhouse gases (GHGs). NH3, whilst not a greenhouse gas on the scale of N2O, CH4 and CO2, is a major emission from agricultural, such as after the spreading of liquid manure, and steps are required to measure and reduce the NH3 emissions and the effects they have on the ecosystem.
By Protea Limited based in Middlewich, UNITED KINGDOM.
Bristar Containment Industries has been serving Environmental Protection in the Upstream Petroleum Industry for 15 years. Prevention of soil and groundwater damage is preferred to clean up after the fact.
By Bristar Containment Industries Ltd. based in Wimborne, ALBERTA (CANADA).
Gradko’s ambient air monitoring equipment is widely used to monitor both indoor and outdoor air quality. Continuous development allows us to provide equipment for a broad range of applications, covering short-term and long-term monitoring. Pollutants can be detected even at very low levels – limits of detection are typically in the low parts per billion (ppb) range.
By Gradko International Ltd based in Winchester, UNITED KINGDOM.
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