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Often overlooked in the laboratory, sample extraction is the first key step in providing accurate and reliable results. Samples can be extracted in suitable solvents for analysis via semi-automated solid-phase extraction; liquid:liquid extraction using a number of solvents; ultra-sonication; mechanical shaking, including high-speed vortexing and incubated flat-bed shaking.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is a tried and tested analytical technique suited to higher level (part per million, ppm) analytes. HPLC is cited in a number of EPA, NIOSH and OSHA methods for the determination of a wide range of compounds such as formaldehyde and diisocyanates. By developing these methods we are able to offer numerous compounds in other matrices, for example formaldehyde in soils and waters and anti-oxidants (e.g. MIT,...
There are many thousands of natural and synthetic organic dyes, some of which are permitted in food products and some of which are not. Examples of natural organic dyes include cochineal, saffron and woad.
Nitration reactions are notably used for the production of explosives, for example the conversion of guanidine to nitroguanidine and the conversion of toluene to trinitrotoluene (TNT). Since the mid-1800s nitroaromatics have been used extensively as explosives and propellants and the following suite also contains commonly associated by-products and metabolites.
The POPs are organic components included in the Priority Substances (PS), those chemicals identified as presenting a significant risk to or via the aquatic environment at EU level and which are listed in Annex X to the Water Framework Directive (WFD) 2000/60/EC.
With increasingly lower regulatory requirements and the introduction and use of sometimes unfamiliar units there can be room for confusion.