Gas Flow Monitoring Articles

  • How an Ultrasonic Flow Meter Works

    An ultrasonic flow meter utilizes ultrasound to measure the velocity of a fluid and is used in a variety of fluid applications. Ultrasonic flowmeters are ideal for water and other liquids. Clamp-on ultrasonic flow meters achieve high accuracy at low and high flows, save time with no pipe cutting or process shutdown, and are not affected by external noise. Here’s how ultrasonic flow ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • How Does a Water Flow Meter Work?

    A water flow meter is a device that measures the amount of water flowing through a pipe. There are several water flow meter technologies to choose from depending on the water measurement application, maintenance requirements, and budgetary terms.  Each of these types of water flow meters has a unique principle of operation, specific application benefits, and overall ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • How Does a Water Flow Meter Work?

    A flow meter works by measuring the amount of a gas, liquid or steam that passes through or around the flow meter sensors. While flow meter sensors work in many different ways, the end goal is the same: Deliver the most accurate and repeatable flow measurements for the specific application, whether for general research, process control or semiconductor processing. Flow meters measure either mass ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Preventable Mistakes with Vortex Flow Meters

    Vortex flow meter technology is an ideal technology for many applications particularly saturated and supersaturated steam, volumetric water applications as well as flow energy management (natural gas, compressed air, steam, water) in facilities and large campuses. In some of these applications, vortex installations can be tricky and take flow expertise for the most successful installations. Kam ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Ozone mass transfer behaviors on physical and chemical absorption for hollow fiber membrane contactors

    To understand the mass transfer behaviors in hollow fiber membrane contactors, ozone fluxes affected by various conditions and membranes were investigated. For physical absorption, mass transfer rate increased with liquid velocity and the ozone concentration in the gas. Gas flow rate was little affected when the velocity was larger than the critical value, which was 6.1 × 10−3m/s in this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Minute Flow Tip Video - Mass Flow Versus Volumetric Flow Technology

    When engineers and systems integrators need to measure gas flow rate in an industrial process or scientific research, there are many types of technologies to choose from.  This makes selecting the right gas flow meter a challenge. In addition to technology, engineers must consider many other parameters: price for value, cost of ownership, size of footprint, ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Erratum: Water Science and Technology 75 (10), 2257–2267: Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures, Natércia Matias, Asbjørn Haaning Nielsen, Jes Vollertsen, Filipa Ferreira and José Saldanha Matos, doi: 10.2166/wst.2017.103

    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Liquid-gas mass transfer at drop structures

    Over the last decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the sulfur cycle in sewer systems. In spite of a wealth of experimental and field studies that have addressed the release of hydrogen sulfide from free surface flows in gravity sewers and the corresponding air-water mass transfer, little is known about hydrogen sulfide emission under highly turbulent conditions ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sulfide emissions in sewer networks: focus on liquid to gas mass transfer coefficient

    H2S emission dynamics in sewers are conditioned by the mass transfer coefficient at the interface. This work aims at measuring the variation of the mass transfer coefficient with the hydraulic characteristics, with the objective of estimating H2S emission in gravity pipes, and collecting data to establish models independent of the system geometry. The ratio between the H2S and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Artificial intelligence based model for optimization of COD removal efficiency of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor in the saline wastewater treatment

    The complex non-linear behavior presented in the biological treatment of wastewater requires an accurate model to predict the system performance. This study evaluates the effectiveness of an artificial intelligence (AI) model, based on the combination of artificial neural networks (ANNs) and genetic algorithms (GAs), to find the optimum performance of an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Tech Note: Flare Gas Measurement Innovation; Retain Flow Metering Accuracy Even if Gas Composition Changes

    It’s a fact oil wells almost always produce natural gas along with the petroleum. Nine times out of ten, the excess gas (typically hydrocarbons) is flared off or simply vented as-is during upset conditions in the process. The environmental impacts of “flaring” this excess gas into our atmosphere has resulted in government regulations like 40 CFR Part 60 Subpart OOOO (also ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Direct Mass Flow or Volumetric: The Thermal Flow Meter Technology Advantage!

    In today’s world where everyone is watching the bottom line, you need high performance, cost-effective instrumentation—and capillary thermal mass flow meters and controllers have been proven to meet this criteria in a wide range of process applications. Thermal mass flow technology is an industry standard for mass flow control of gases because it measures flow directly, at the ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • The ‘Swiss Army Knife’ of Mass Flow Controllers

    Did you ever wish your mass flow controller could do it all? You’re not alone. End users ranging from machine builders to laboratory researchers are often faced with the challenge of needing flow measurement and control equipment for a wide variety of applications. Many customers call the SmartTrak 100 mass flow ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Holcim Ste. Genevieve Cement Plant - Case Study

    Big and beautiful The new cement manufacturing facility of Holcim (US) at Ste. Genevieve with a production capacity of four million tonnes per year went on stream mid-2009 and is one of the most environmentally-efficient cement plants in the Holcim Group. It is 40 percent more energy-efficient than the Holcim (US) plants that were closed in 2009 and emits 10 to 25 percent less ...

  • One step, low pH iron and organics removal - Case Study

    Review For over seven years, the semiconductor facility performed routine on-site cleans of their reverse osmosis (RO) membranes using RoClean P111 with good results. However, over a six month period in 2015, membrane cleaning frequency increased to once a month and permeate flows could not be sufficiently restored. An Avista application specialist visited the site to personally monitor the ...


    By Avista Technologies

  • Primary Standard Gas Flow Calibration—The Only Guarantee of Accuracy

    At Sierra, we have a saying: “An instrument’s accuracy is only as good as its calibration.” The accuracy of your mass flow controller (MFC) is essential in assuring the efficiency, performance, and quality of your flow meter. In many cases, if your instrumentation is not calibrated, then a decline in performance is possible due to ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • How to Attain Precise CO2 Injection in the Carbonated Beverage Production Process

    Looking for the perfectly carbonated beverage? Is your CO2 injection process leaving your drinks flat? Industrial mass flow controllers offer the perfect solution for controlling the exact CO2 injection into beverages to create the perfect foam for the beer industry or carbonation for popular soft drinks. It is pivotal that carbonated beverage manufacturers have the ability control the exact ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Gas Mass Flow Control: Why Thermal Mass Flow Technology is Recommended for Best Accuracy!

    It’s no secret. Price, but perhaps more importantly, performance, drive every new product acquisition you make.  How important is measurement accuracy and control to your lab experiment or industrial process? It’s critical.  If your flow readings are off or the flow is not controlled with precise accuracy your research is compromised, product quality suffers, and processes ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Reducing Costs of Steam Flow Measurement

    Traditionally, steam flow has been measured with a differential pressure device. This is typically an orifice plate. However, such devices are inherently volumetric flow measurements. As we have discussed in previous blog posts, changes in pressure and temperature ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Recapping the Debate Over Whether Low-Carbon Economies Are Good for Tech

    To be of any use, tech products need power from electrical outlets, stored chemical energy such as batteries and generators, solar collectors, kinetic energy like my emergency hand-crank radio/charger, or other means. As more global and local regions move away from fossil-fuel-based power to low-carbon renewable power, I wonder how my colleagues in the tech industry would weigh in on a debate ...


    By Antea Group - USA

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