Monitoring & Testing Articles

  • Small town water services sustainability checks: development and application in Ethiopia

    With rising coverage figures and the advent of the Sustainable Development Goals, there is increasing attention given to assessing and monitoring the sustainability of water services. Previous efforts in the rural water supply sector have included the development of sustainability checks, while in the urban water supply sector, benchmarking of water services and the performance of utilities ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • New Zealand plant growth trials in rapid bio-filtration media

    Media used in rapid bio-filtration devices have hydraulic conductivity rates exceeding 2,500 mm/hr. Stormwater360 New Zealand has partnered with Contech Engineered Solutions (USA) to produce a rapid bio-filtration medium using locally available materials. Current bio-filtration guidance limits the hydraulic conductivity of media to less than 300 mm/hr to support plant growth. Using a ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Odour control: A successful experience in sorocaba city – Brazil

    Public concern over odours from sewage treatment facilities have been increasingly significantly in Brazil in recent years due to urban developments around existing plants or construction of new ones. The city of Sorocaba is an example where the expansion of the sewage collection and treatment system has increased and consequently more people have been exposed to bad odours. Due to this ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Sodium chloride as a tracer for hydrodynamic characterization of a shallow maturation pond

    The results of tests with a sodium chloride tracer in a shallow maturation pond in Brazil are presented. The pond – a full-scale effluent treatment unit for around 250 p.e – was 0.80 m deep with a length/width ratio of 4.3:1, and had accumulated sludge for 12 years to about 40% of the total volume. The pond is subject to daily cycles of thermal stratification/destratification, as shown by ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Comparative analysis of two low cost point-of-use water treatment systems

    The study examined two low-cost point-of-use water treatment systems developed in respect of bacterial and particulate removal when exposed to surface water for three months. Bacterial removal efficiency was estimated using E. coli and fecal coliforms, while particulate reduction efficiency was estimated by determining turbidity and total suspended solids (TSS). The systems investigated were ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Saves Time and Money

    Through its subsidiaries, they mainly operate in four business segments: oil, chemical, lubricant and R & D. ...


    By NEO Monitors AS

  • Critical pieces in a big puzzle

    Dynea is one of the world’s leading producers of adhesives for industrial use, particularly for the wood and paper industry, but also for rock wool and glass fibre products. The company has been an important ...


    By NEO Monitors AS

  • Extended CSO control storage: what could possibly go wrong?

    The Thames Tideway Tunnel (TTT), is one of the main components of the London Tideway Improvements Programme, designed to capture combined sewer overflows (CSOs) which currently discharge untreated combined sewage into the tidal river Thames. CSO discharges would be stored in the tunnel until there is capacity at Beckton sewage treatment works (STW), to accept, for treatment, pumped sewage from ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • A conceptual model for decentralized municipal wastewater management

    This paper proposes a conceptual model for selecting the centralization level for wastewater management in urban areas, which is associated with main sewage collectors and wastewater treatment facilities. The model is supported in the Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Cost-Benefit Analysis. Additionally, the model is based on the results of variables and indicators ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Vacuum sewerage systems – a solution for fast growing cities in developing countries?

    Developed more than a century ago, the potential of vacuum sewerage systems remains underexploited. At the same time, the rapid urbanization in Asia brings about major challenges for municipal utilities. In this context, the GIZ (Deutsche Gesellschaft fuer Internationale Zusammenarbeit) project ‘Integrated Resource Management in Asian Cities: the Urban Nexus’ gives technical advice to ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Water services in small towns in developing countries: at the tail end of development

    The current lack of knowledge about small towns, the great diversity of such settlements and the pressure to ‘scale up’ interventions make it difficult for policy makers and practitioners to develop models which are suitable for these towns. Currently, principles and practices informing models for water services in urban and rural areas are applied in small towns without question. This paper ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • The role of adaptation in mobile technology innovation for the water, sanitation and hygiene sector

    While the growing availability of mobile phones has commanded the attention of the development community, an estimated 844 million people continue to lack access to basic drinking water and 2.3 billion to adequate sanitation. Development has now begun of mobile applications to improve access to water, sanitation and hygiene services (mWASH). To understand the barriers to innovation, nine mWASH ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Faecal sludge reuse in Birendranagar, Nepal: a case study of the world health organisation's multiple barrier approach

    This case study presents an innovative initiative to facilitate safe reuse of faecal sludge (FS) by introducing the World Health Organisation's multi-barrier approach within a Farmer Field Schools framework for participatory experiential learning. A novel FS treatment process based on fermentation by ‘effective organisms’ (EM) was piloted to test the feasibility, safety and acceptability of ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Monitoring for the golden balance

    On Herøya in Porsgrunn, Yara has an ammonia plant, three nitric acid plants and a calcium nitrate plant. Together the plants produce a wide range of fertilizers that meet the requirements for fertilization ...


    By NEO Monitors AS

  • Could EB irradiation be the simplest solution for removing emerging contaminants from water and wastewater?

    Newly observed presence of ‘emerging contaminants’, defined also Compounds of Emerging Concern, chemicals without regulatory status and which impact on environment and human health are poorly understood has been amply reported in wastewater and aquatic environments. ‘Conventional’ water pollutants have been described for decades and their impact on human health and the environment are known; ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Organic matter removal in bio-filters to achieve biologically stable water downstream of the process

    Organic removal contaminants reclamation has increased over the past years as it has many advantages over other treatments. Product water from water treatment plants can be chemically complex resulting in physical and biological changes during transportation in the distribution systems. The general aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of biofilters for reducing the concentration ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Match, don't mix: implications of institutional and technical service modalities for water governance outcomes in south Indian small towns

    This paper seeks to contribute to the limited literature on water governance in small towns in India. For assessing water governance, we propose a broad framework encompassing adequacy and affordability, equity, sustainability and responsiveness. Analytically, the concept of ‘service modality’ is expanded to include not only institutional arrangements but also water resource deployment, and ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Leakage estimation in developing country water networks based on water balance, minimum night flow and component analysis methods

    Estimating leakage in developing countries’ water networks is challenging as accurate records are needed. Three leakage estimation methods were compared to ascertain which was most suitable for such networks. The factors accounting for the differences in application of these methods to water networks were also ascertained. The water balance and component analysis methods were compared with the ...


    By IWA Publishing

  • Keeping hygiene front of mind

    Hygiene is drummed into us from a young age. It usually starts with the more unsavoury lessons – like don’t pick your nose – and gradually migrates to the importance of showers, deodorant and good sexual health. It’s only when some of us dedicate themselves to caring for others do we fully appreciate how important hygiene is. In a good hospital robust ...


    By DDC Dolphin Ltd

  • Groundwater quality changes in a groundwater body in a poor chemical status

    The chemical composition of groundwater in the Quaternary body SK1000600P in the Danube basin was analysed based on chemical analyses from 7 monitoring sites of the Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute network during 2002–2009 and 2010–2015 time periods. The current status was evaluated based on the Regulations of the Government of the Slovak Republic No 282/2010. The influence of the ...


    By IWA Publishing

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