Air Pollution Control Articles

  • A Tale of Two Thermals: Capillary & Immersible

    About: The Core Technology White Paper Series is a four part series detailing the flow technologies that allow Sierra to offer a flow solution for nearly any gas, liquid and steam application. Part 1 focuses on Sierra’s two types of thermal mass flow technologies for gas mass flow measurement and control—Capillary Thermal & Immersible Thermal. Part 2 will focus on our ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Buying time in suspended animation - Case Study

    Imagine being suspended in time—having your metabolism slow, heart rate decrease, and temperature drop. For Dr. David Kraus, Sulfide Biologist at the University of Alabama, linearity and precision matters. Dr. Kraus and other scientists are discovering that by administering small amounts of H2S, they can buy time in suspended animation. In 2005, Dr. Kraus decided to take his experiments ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Delivering automation to test stations - Case Study

    CeraMem Corporation is a developer of metal oxide gas concentration sensors in Waltham, MA. Their test engineers required mass flow controllers that were easy to intregrate and calibrate. They also demanded fast response and high accuracy in order to reduce test cycle length and improve the quality of the data. Test station requirements demanded that controllers were capable of adjusting ratios ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Lockhead advances cryogenic research - Case Study

    Lockheed Martin researches, designs, manufactures, and integrates advanced technology systems for the U.S. Department of Defense and NASA. Eric Roth, a Lockheed physicist, tests infrared sensors used for positioning systems in deep-space satellites and  super-conducting electronics. These instruments will not function at normal temperatures. Roth uses a cryogenic refrigerator to test that ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Process gas mass flow controllers - An overview

    A mass How controller (MFC) is used 10 control the How of gases in a wide range of microelectronic processes. A well-designed MFC maintains a constant tlow within I percent of the full-scale flow, has a repeatability of 0.2 percent of full scale, and has a response time of 1 second to reach within 2 percent of the desired (command) flow, all of this is in response to any changes in command flow. ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Improve gas blending accuracy and save money – Case Study

    For DataChem Laboratories, precision mass flow is crucial. DataChem, originally established in 1973 as part of the University of Utah's Research Institute, has grown into a world respected analytical testing laboratory. They have the important job of testing and identifying harmful industrial and environmental toxins—from lead paint found on our children's toys to methamphetamine dust ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Tuning combustion ratios in the field - Case Study

    For a major European gas manufacturer, the burner control systems in their power generators had long relied on three different technologies for natural gas mass flow measurement. These included a rotameter with integrated microprocessor to calculate  density, a turbine meter with a fixed correction factor, and a thermal mass flow meter. The rotameter's poor rangeability (1:3) and fixed ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Researchers create Martian environment - Case Study

    The pressure on Mars is less than one percent of what it is on Earth. The research of the Controlled Environment System Research Facility (CESRF) at the University of Guelph in Ontario, Canada includes evaluation of plant growth under these low pressures. In their studies of biological life support for future space exploration, their experiments utilize eight closed-loop hypobaric chambers. Each ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Bringing precision to steel production - Case Study

    Aluminum and steel manufacturers use mass flow controllers to inject purification, stirring and shielding gases into their melting, casting and annealing processes. Precise, automated gas flow control reduces toxic emissions and material costs.  Final purification of aluminum is accomplished by bubbling a mixture of argon and chlorine gases through the molten metal. This process separates ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Capturing biogas from landfills – Case Study

    Each day, millions of tons of municipal solid wastes are disposed of in sanitary landfills and dump sites around the world. Over 1,200 landfills worldwide collect landfill gas, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions and accrues emissions credits to meet the Environmental Protection ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Controlling natural gas usage costs – Case Study

    A large American engine manufacturer required mass flow meters to measure natural gas usage in each of the eleven buildings on their campus. Natural gas is used to fire furnaces and other equipment. Because each facility is a separate profit center, fuel and utility costs are allocated by building. They must also provide an accurate usage report of natural gas to the Department of Natural ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Maximizing bioreactor performance - Case Study

    Paul Sauer, Associate Scientist of Protein Design Lab's Cell Culture Development Group, had two compelling reasons for specifying mass flow controllers for his work: The first was the need to acquire an array of data that would allow them to more effectively control fermentation processes; The second was the need to minimize the formation of foam in the bioreactor's headspace. To minimize foam, ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Ancient process meets the future - Case Study

    Food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries requiring the regulation of air and gas flows have historically faced the challenge of obtaining highly accurate measurements in rugged factory environments. Within the last two decades, thermal mass flow controllers have overcome the shortcomings of volumetric approaches and demonstrated precise accuracy. With the advent of industrial gas mass flow ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Gas mixing and blending equipment – Case Study

    How They Work A specific gas blend within a chamber must be produced by a procedure known as ideal gas mixing (or gas blending). In this example, synthetic air composition is maintained at a mix ratio of 78% N2, 21% O2 and 1% Ar. A miniature Human/Machine Interface (HMI) with LCD touch screen monitors and controls the system automatically. The HMI communicates to ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Fiberglass manufacturing requires precise gas ratio control – Case Study

    Fiberglass insulation manufacturing is almost akin to making cotton candy!  A mixture of silica and other components are melted and passed through a spinning extruder, then rapidly cooled with compressed air. As older fiberglass manufacturing plants have demonstrated, manual ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Glass manufacturer controls gas ratios - Case Study

    For a specialty glass manufacturer that constructs high-quality glass containers for the pharmaceutical and analytical industry, manual control of air and natural gas flow to the burner tip had resulted in unacceptable levels of rejected material, as well as excessive gas consumption. The process engineers were seeking methods to improve glass quality, reduce raw material waste, and increase ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

  • Oxidizers Project - Case Study

    Problem A pioneering leader in the window-film industry was literally burning money to operate its coating lines. The company produces thin solar-control laminated films used to screen UV rays, block heat, reduce glare, increase occupant comfort, and enhance aesthetics. The company also produces multi-ply safety and security films that reduce hazards when glass shatters. The products are ...


    By Dürr Megtec LLC

  • Biomedical research looks to thermal mass flow controllers

    Precision control in biomedical research is critical for the success of any experiment. This is especially true for gas mixing and blending applications. These gas mixing applications often involve the creation of artificial atmospheres or other gas mixtures. To get statistically sound results, scientists must achieve precision flow control in creating these mixtures for sensitive experiments. In ...


    By Sierra Instruments, Inc.

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